Home Medical QuizzesAnatomy Quizzes [Anatomy] The Abdomen quizzes – Part 5 (20 questions)

[Anatomy] The Abdomen quizzes – Part 5 (20 questions)

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The Abdomen quizzes 5

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All of the following structures may herniate into the thoracic cavity when there is a traumatic diaphragmatic hernia EXCEPT

Correct! Wrong!

The stomach, spleen, mesentery, and intestine may herniate into the thorax when there is a traumatic diaphragmatic hernia

All of the following structures pass through the esophageal hiatus EXCEPT

Correct! Wrong!

The esophageal hiatus is an oval aperture for the esophagus in the muscle of the right crus of the diaphragm at the level of the T10 vertebra. The esophageal hiatus also transmits the anterior and posterior vagal trunks, esophageal branches of the left gastric vessels, and a few lymphatics

The greater and lesser splanchnic nerves pass through the diaphragm via which of the following structures?

Correct! Wrong!

The sympathetic trunks pass deep to the medial arcuate ligament. There are two small apertures in each crus of the diaphragm; one transmits the greater and the other the lesser splanchnic nerve

The parasympathetic root of the celiac plexus is a branch of which of the following?

Correct! Wrong!

The parasympathetic root of the celiac plexus is a branch of the posterior vagal trunk that contains fibers from the right and left vagal nerves. The sympathetic roots of the plexus are the greater and lesser splanchnic nerves

The bifurcation of the abdominal aorta occurs at the level of which of the following structures?

Correct! Wrong!

The inferior vena cava begins anterior to the L5 vertebra by the union of the common iliac veins. The union occurs approximately 2.5 cm to the right of the median plane, inferior to the bifurcation of the aorta and posterior to the proximal part of the right common iliac artery

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The cisterna chyli is the inferior end of which of the following structures?

Correct! Wrong!

In a small proportion of individuals, the inferior end of the thoracic duct—which begins with the convergence of the main lymphatic ducts of the abdomen—takes the form of the commonly depicted, thin-walled sac or dilation known as the cisterna chyli

How are the pelvic splanchnic nerves distinct from other splanchnic nerves?

Correct! Wrong!

The pelvic splanchnic nerves are distinct from other splanchnic nerves in that they have nothing to do with the sympathetic trunks and are derived directly from ventral rami of spinal nerves S2 through S4. They also convey presynaptic parasympathetic fibers to the inferior hypogastric plexus

All of the following statements concerning the psoas major muscle are correct EXCEPT

Correct! Wrong!

The psoas muscle is a long, thick, fusiform muscle that lies lateral to the lumbar vertebrae. Psoas is a Greek word meaning “muscle of the loin.” The muscle passes inferolaterally, deep to the inguinal ligament to reach the lesser trochanter of the femur. The lumbar plexus of nerves is embedded in the posterior part of the psoas

Which of the following statements correctly applies to the suprarenal medulla?

Correct! Wrong!

The suprarenal medulla is derived from neural crest cells associated with the sympathetic nervous system. The chromaffin cells of the medulla are related to sympathetic (postganglionic) neurons in both derivation (neural crest cells) and function. These cells secrete catecholamines (mostly epinephrine) into the bloodstream in response to signals from presynaptic neurons

The anatomical left and right lobes of the liver are separated on the diaphragmatic surface of the liver by which of the following structures?

Correct! Wrong!

In the current terminology, the left liver includes the caudate lobe and most of the quadrate lobe. The anatomical left lobe is separated from these lobes on the visceral surface by the fissure for the round ligament of the liver and the fissure for the ligamentum venosum; on the diaphragmatic surface the anatomical left lobe is separated by the attachment of the falciform ligament

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All of the following statements concerning the spleen are correct EXCEPT

Correct! Wrong!

The splenic artery is the largest branch of the celiac trunk. It follows a tortuous course posterior to the omental bursa, anterior to the left kidney, and along the superior border of the pancreas. It divides into five or more branches that enter the hilum of the spleen

In the developing embryo, the midgut rotates 270 degrees around which of the following structures?

Correct! Wrong!

For several weeks the rapidly growing midgut, supplied by the superior mesenteric artery, is physiologically herniated into the proximal part of the umbilical cord. It is attached to the yolk sac by the yolk stalk. As it returns to the abdominal cavity, the midgut rotates 270 degrees around the axis of the superior mesenteric artery

Which of the following structures is avascular?

Correct! Wrong!

The appendicular artery is located in the mesoappendix and the anterior cecal artery is located in the superior ileocecal fold. Both the appendix and cecum are vascular. The inferior ileocecal fold is avascular

Which of the following statements correctly relates to the 3rd part of the duodenum?

Correct! Wrong!

The inferior or horizontal (3rd) part of the duodenum runs transversally to the left, passing over the inferior vena cava, aorta, and L3 vertebra. It is crossed by the superior mesenteric artery and vein and the root of the mesentery

The left gastro-omental artery arises from which of the following arteries?

Correct! Wrong!

The left gastro-omental artery arises from the splenic artery and courses along the greater curvature to anastomose with the right gastro-omental artery

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Rugae are located in which of the following structures?

Correct! Wrong!

The smooth surface of the gastric mucosa, mucous layer of the stomach, is thrown into longitudinal ridges when contracted. These are the gastric folds or rugae and most obvious along the greater curvature of the stomach

All of the following statements concerning the esophagus are correct EXCEPT

Correct! Wrong!

The esophagus is a muscular tube (approximately 25 cm long) that extends from the pharynx to the stomach. It normally has four constrictions and is crossed by the arch of the aorta and the left main bronchus

Digestion occurs mainly in which of the following structures?

Correct! Wrong!

Digestion occurs mainly in the stomach and duodenum. Peristalsis—ring-like, contraction waves that begin around the middle of the stomach and move slowly toward the pylorus—is responsible for mixing the masticated food mass with gastric juices and for emptying the contents of the stomach into the duodenum

Most reabsorption of water occurs in which of the following structures?

Correct! Wrong!

Most reabsorption occurs in the ascending colon

[Anatomy] The Abdomen quizzes – Part 5 (20 questions)
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81. All of the following structures may herniate into the thoracic cavity when there is a traumatic diaphragmatic hernia EXCEPT
(A) stomach
(B) kidney
(C) intestine
(D) mesentery
(E) spleen
82. All of the following structures pass through the esophageal hiatus EXCEPT
(A) posterior vagal trunk
(B) esophageal branches of the left gastric vessels
(C) anterior vagal trunk
(D) thoracic duct
(E) esophagus
83. The greater and lesser splanchnic nerves pass through the diaphragm via which of the following structures?
(A) sternocostal foramen
(B) aortic hiatus
(C) diaphragmatic crus
(D) vena caval foramen
(E) medial arcuate ligament
84. The parasympathetic root of the celiac plexus is a branch of which of the following?
(A) greater splanchnic
(B) pelvic splanchnic
(C) lumbar splanchnic
(D) posterior vagal trunk
(E) lesser splanchnic
85. The bifurcation of the abdominal aorta occurs at the level of which of the following structures?
(A) crest of the ilium
(B) inguinal ligament
(C) pubic tubercle
(D) symphysis pubis
(E) obturator foramen
86. The inferior vena cava begins anterior to which of the following structures?

(A) right crus of the diaphragm
(B) right kidney
(C) 5th lumbar vertebra
(D) crest of the ilium
(E) bifurcation of the aorta

87. The cisterna chyli is the inferior end of which of the following structures?
(A) inferior vena cava
(B) abdominal aorta
(C) renal vein
(D) testicular artery
(E) thoracic duct
88. How are the pelvic splanchnic nerves distinct from other splanchnic nerves?
(A) derived from ventral primary rami of L2, L3, and L4
(B) derived from the sympathetic trunks
(C) convey preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to the inferior hypogastric plexus
(D) provide postganglionic sympathetic innervation to the cecum
(E) convey postganglionic parasympathetic innervation to the ascending colon
89. All of the following statements concerning the psoas major muscle are correct EXCEPT
(A) It passes inferolaterally, deep to the inguinal ligament.
(B) It inserts on the lesser trochanter of the femur.
(C) The pelvic splanchnic nerves are embedded in the posterior part of the psoas.
(D) It is a long, thick and fusiform muscle.
(E) Its name stems from a Greek word meaning “muscle of the loin.
90. Which of the following statements correctly applies to the suprarenal medulla?
(A) derived from mesoderm
(B) secretes corticosteroids and androgens
(C) contains chromaffin cells
(D) secretes acetylcholine
(E) produces hormones that cause the kidney to retain sodium and water in response to stress
91. The anatomical left and right lobes of the liver are separated on the diaphragmatic surface of the liver by which of the following structures?
(A) fissure for the round ligament of the liver
(B) fissure for the ligamentum venosum
(C) falciform ligament
(D) porta hepatis
(E) lesser omentum
92. All of the following statements concerning the spleen are correct EXCEPT
(A) It is the largest branch of the celiac trunk.
(B) It follows a tortuous course along the inferior border of the pancreas.
(C) It divides into five or more branches that enter the hilum of the spleen.
(D) It runs anterior to the left kidney.
(E) It follows posterior to the omental bursa.
93. In the developing embryo, the midgut rotates 270 degrees around which of the following
structures?
(A) superior mesenteric artery
(B) celiac trunk
(C) splenic artery
(D) left renal artery
(E) inferior vena cava
94. Which of the following structures is avascular?
(A) superior ileocecal fold
(B) inferior ileocecal fold
(C) mesoappendix
(D) appendix
(E) cecum
95. Which of the following statements correctly relates to the 3rd part of the duodenum?
(A) It is supported by the suspensory ligament of the duodenum.
(B) The bile and pancreatic ducts enter its posteromedial wall.
(C) It is crossed by the superior mesenteric artery and vein.

(D) It attaches to the hepatoduodenal ligament.
(E) It lies to the right and runs parallel to the inferior vena cava.

96. The left gastro-omental artery arises from which of the following arteries?
(A) celiac trunk
(B) right gastric
(C) gastroduodenal
(D) splenic
(E) hepatic
97. Rugae are located in which of the following structures?
(A) duodenum
(B) jejunum
(C) ileum
(D) cecum
(E) stomach
98. All of the following statements concerning the esophagus are correct EXCEPT
(A) It extends from the pharynx to the stomach.
(B) It is crossed by the arch of the aorta.
(C) It is crossed by the right main bronchus.
(D) It passes through the esophageal hiatus.
(E) It normally has four constrictions.
99. Digestion occurs mainly in which of the following structures?
(A) cecum and ascending colon
(B) transverse colon
(C) stomach and duodenum
(D) jejunum and ileum
(E) transverse and sigmoid colon
100. Most reabsorption of water occurs in which of the following structures?
(A) stomach
(B) jejunum
(C) sigmoid colon
(D) ascending colon
(E) rectum

 

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