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Select the ONE answer that is BEST in each case.
Three teenaged high school students develop meningitis. A classmate is concerned and comes to see you. Which of the following is the most appropriate next step in management?
This is likely an outbreak of meningitis secondary to Neisseria meningitidis. The first line of drugs used for treatment of acute disease includes cefixime, levofloxacin, and ceftriaxone. For prophylaxis, rifampin is the preferred agent.
See all quizzes of the Clinical Pharmacology at here:
|21. Three teenaged high school students develop meningitis. A classmate is concerned and
comes to see you. Which of the following is the most appropriate next step in management?
(C) only reassurance and observation
|22. A 69-year-old man’s dyspepsia is improved with ranitidine therapy. Which of the following is the best explanation for improvement in his symptoms?
(A) almost totally abolishes acid secretion
(B) blocks histamine-H1 receptors
(C) is well-absorbed in the stomach
(D) must be taken four times per day
(E) has no neurologic side effects
|23. A 68-year-old man presents with symptoms and signs of CHF. Which of the following is a contraindication to use furosemide?
(A) has hypoalbuminemia
(B) is oliguric
(C) has acidosis
(D) had a rash with trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole
(E) is on anticoagulants
|24. A43-year-old woman with breast cancer is being treated with doxorubicin. Which of the following is a limitation to therapy with doxorubicin?
(A) neurologic toxicity
(B) severe nausea
(E) heart failure
|25. A 23-year-old homeless man is found to have consumed alcohol adulterated with methanol. He is started on treatment effective for minimizing the toxicity to methanol. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for the benefit of this treatment?
(A) enhances renal excretion of methanol
(B) prevents biotransformation of methanol
(C) combines to form a nontoxic polymer
(D) changes the toxin’s volume of distribution
(E) sedates the patient, thus preventing neurologic damage from methanol
|26. A 69-year-old man with heart failure and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation is prescribed
amiodarone for maintenance of sinus rhythm. Which of the following is a known characteristic of amiodarone?
(A) excellent oral absorption
(B) a short half-life
(C) an active metabolite
(D) few drug interactions
(E) a small volume of distribution
|27. Which of the following features of barbiturateinduced coma is most likely correct?
(A) requires at least 20–30 times the full sedative dose
(B) is increasing in frequency
(C) is characterized by an initial period of hyperventilation
(D) causes death by depression of the cardiovascular system
(E) causes death by pulmonary complications
|28. Which of the following is a stimulus for insulin secretion?
(C) severe burns
(D) beta2-adrenergic receptor antagonists
|29. Which of the following is the most deleterious effect of epinephrine infusion on cardiac function?
(A) increased heart rate
(B) increased stroke volume
(C) increased cardiac output
(E) increased coronary blood flow
|30. Which of the following is the most striking difference in the cardiac actions of epinephrine
(A) heart rate
(B) stroke volume
(C) cardiac output
(E) coronary blood flow
|31. Which of the following statements concerning the relative effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine infusion on peripheral circulation is correct?
(A) both drugs increase total peripheral resistance
(B) neither drug increases total peripheral resistance
(C) neither drug increases renal blood flow
(D) both drugs increase cutaneous blood flow
(E) both drugs increase muscle blood flow
|32. Which of the following statements concerning the use of isoproterenol and dobutamine for
shock is correct?
(A) isoproterenol is preferred because of its short half-life
(B) neither drug will potentiate cardiac ischemia
(C) dobutamine has a more prominent inotropic effect than chronotropic effect compared with isoproterenol
(D) neither drug affects smooth muscle
(E) isoproterenol raises blood pressure more than dobutamine
|33. Which of the following is the most likely reason why beta2-selective adrenergic agonists are preferred to nonselective beta-adrenergic agonists in the treatment of asthma?
(A) relax bronchial smooth muscle and thus decrease airway resistance
(B) improve mucociliary function
(C) suppress the release of leukotrienes and histamine from mast cells in lung
(D) decrease microvascular permeability
(E) have fewer side effects
|34. Which of the following statements concerning innate tolerance to alcohol is correct?
(A) it develops over many years of even moderate drinking
(B) high levels of innate tolerance protect against the development of alcoholism
(C) this is likely a result of polygenic inheritance
(D) pharmacokinetic factors are not involved
|35. Which of the following is the most likely reason for pharmacokinetic tolerance?
(A) changes in absorption
(B) changes in distribution
(C) changes specific to that drug
(D) changes in metabolism
(E) renal adaptation
|36. Which of the following is an example of learned tolerance?
(A) avoiding alcohol when feeling unsteady
(B) drinking alcohol only with food
(C) walking a straight line when intoxicated
(D) not driving when drunk
(E) using vitamins to prevent alcohol damage
|37. Which of the following best describes sensitization to a drug?
(A) an allergic response
(B) a purely behavioral effect
(C) a shift to the right of a dose response curve
(D) reverse tolerance
(E) a response to an acute binge
|38. The administration of which of the following drugs is most likely to result in sensitization?
|39. Which of the following drugs is most likely to result in addiction among those who have ever used it?
|40. Which of the following is a symptom of withdrawal from prolonged moderate dose benzodiazepine usage?
(D) decreased hearing
(E) anxiety and agitation
|41. Which of the following features concerning heroin withdrawal is correct?
(A) it is frequently life-threatening
(B) it starts about 24 hours after the last dose
(C) pupillary constriction is present
(D) irritability and restlessness
(E) blood pressure is lowered
|42. Which of the following opioid analgesics is most likely to cause central nervous system
|43. Which of the following is the most likely reason why fentanyl does not disturb cardiovascular stability as much as morphine?
(A) is water soluble
(B) is lipid soluble
(C) does not stimulate histamine release
(D) is long acting
(E) is not as potent as morphine