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Select the one best response to each question!
Scoliosis may be caused by which of the following?
Scoliosis may be caused by asymmetrical weakness of intrinsic back muscles (myopathic scoliosis), difference in length of the lower limbs, failure of one half of a vertebra to develop, or occasionally habitual standing or sitting in an improper position (habit scoliosis)
|Postsynaptic sympathetic fibers do ALL of the following EXCEPT
(A) constrict the pupil of the eye
(B) stimulate contraction of blood vessels
(C) stimulate contraction of erector pili muscles
(D) cause sudomotion
(E) cause goose bumps
|Which of the following is NOT true?
(A) Variations in vertebrae are affected by race, sex, genetic factors, and environmental factors.
(B) An increased number of vertebrae occurs more often in males, and a reduced number occurs more often in females.
(C) The number of cervical vertebrae can be 6, 7, or 8.
(D) Some people have more than five lumbar vertebrae and therefore fewer thoracic vertebrae.
(E) The sacrum is typically composed of five fused vertebrae.
|Which of the following statements about kyphosis is true?
(A) Kyphosis may result from developmental anomalies as well as from osteoporosis.
(B) The vertebral column curves anteriorly.
(C) Kyphosis results in an increase in the lateral diameter of the thorax.
(D) Women may develop a temporary kyphosis during pregnancy.
(E) It is also known as “swayback” or “hollow back.”
|Lordosis is characterized by which of the following?
(A) an abnormal increase in thoracic curvature
(B) an anterior rotation of the pelvis
(C) an abnormal lateral curvature
(D) rotation of the vertebrae
(E) lateral curvature of the spine
|Scoliosis may be caused by which of the following?
(A) asymmetrical weakness of intrinsic back muscles
(B) difference in length of the upper limbs
(C) dehydrated intervertebral discs
(D) ipsilateral weakness in gluteal muscles
(E) sciatic nerve lesion
|Which of the following is NOT true in respect to caudal epidural anesthesia?
(A) A local anesthetic is injected into the sacral hiatus or the posterior sacral foramina.
(B) The anesthetic acts on S2-4 and the coccygeal nerves.
(C) The height to which the anesthetic travels is primarily limited by the amount of fat in the epidural space.
(D) Sensation is lost inferior to the epidural block.
(E) The sacral hiatus is located between the sacral cornua and inferior to the 4th sacral spinous process or median sacral crest.
|Which of the following is NOT a vertebral problem?
(A) sacralization of L5
(B) lumbarization of S1
(C) lumbarization of T12
(D) lumbar spinal stenosis
(E) hemisacralization of L5
|Which of the following statements is true?
(A) In spina bifida cystica, the laminae of L5 and possibly S1 do not fuse properly.
(B) In spina bifida occulta, one or more vertebral arches do not develop, allowing meninges and even the spinal cord to herniate.
(C) Paralysis of the limbs and problems with bladder/bowel control may be associated with meningomyelocele.
(D) Some cases of spina bifida result from an improper closure of the neural tube during the 8th week of embryonic development.
(E) A meningocele is a spina bifida associated with brain herniation.
|Which of the following are derivatives of the epimere?
(A) erector spinae muscles
(B) prevertebral muscles
(C) quadratus lumborum
(D) striated muscles of the anus
|Shortly after week four of development, dorsal primary rami begin to innervate which of the following?
(A) ventral axial skeletal musculature
(B) vertebral joints
(C) skin of the upper limb
(D) sweat glands of the lateral back region
(E) erector pili muscles