The quizzes about Renal Function (32 questions)

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The quizzes about Renal Function (32 questions)
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The type of nephron responsible for renal concentration is the:


1. The type of nephron responsible for renal concentration is the:
A. Cortical
B. Juxtaglomerular
2. The function of the peritubular capillaries is:
A. Reabsorption
B. Filtration
C. Secretion
D. Both A and C
3. Blood flows through the nephron in the following order:
A. Efferent arteriole, peritubular capillaries, vasa recta, afferent arteriole
B. Peritubular capillaries, afferent arteriole, vasa recta, efferent arteriole
C. Afferent arteriole, peritubular capillaries, vasa recta, efferent arteriole
D. Efferent arteriole, vasa recta, peritubular capillaries, afferent arteriole
4. Filtration of protein is prevented in the glomerulus by:
A. Hydrostatic pressure
B. Oncotic pressure
C. Renin
D. Capillary pores
5. Renin is secreted by the nephron in response to:
A. Low systemic blood pressure
B. High systemic blood pressure
C. Oncotic capillary pressure
D. Increased water retention
6. The primary chemical affected by the reninangiotensin-aldosterone system is:
A. Chloride
B. Sodium
C. Potassium
D. Hydrogen
7. Secretion of renin is stimulated by:
A. Juxtaglomerular cells
B. Angiotensin I and II
C. Macula densa cells
D. Circulating angiotensin-converting enzyme
8. The hormone aldosterone is responsible for:
A. Hydrogen ion secretion
B. Potassium secretion
C. Chloride retention
D. Sodium retention
9. The fluid leaving the glomerulus has a specific gravity of:
A. 1.005
B. 1.010
C. 1.015
D. 1.020
10. All of the following are reabsorbed by active transport in the tubules except:
A. Urea
B. Glucose
C. Sodium
D. Chloride
11. Which of the tubules is impermeable to water?
A. Proximal convoluted tubule
B. Descending loop of Henle
C. Ascending loop of Henle
D. Distal convoluted tubule
12. Glucose will appear in the urine when the:
A. Blood level of glucose is 200 mg/dL
B. Tm for glucose is reached
C. Renal threshold for glucose is exceeded
D. All of the above
13. The countercurrent mechanism takes place in the:
A. Juxtaglomerular nephrons
B. Proximal convoluted tubule
C. Cortical nephrons
D. Both A and C
14. ADH regulates the final urine concentration by controlling:
A. Active reabsorption of sodium
B. Tubular permeability
C. Passive reabsorption of urea
D. Passive reabsorption of chloride
15. When the body is dehydrated:
A. ADH production is decreased
B. ADH production is increased
C. Urine volume is increased
D. Both A and C
16. Bicarbonate ions filtered by the glomerulus are returned to the blood:
A. In the proximal convoluted tubule
B. Combined with hydrogen ions
C. By tubular secretion
D. All of the above
17. If ammonia is not produced by the distal convoluted tubule, the urine pH will be:
A. Acidic
B. Basic
18. Place the appropriate letter in front of the following clearance substances:
A. Exogenous
B. Endogenous
____ inulin
____ creatinine
____ cystatin C
19. The largest source of error in creatinine clearance tests is:
A. Secretion of creatinine
B. Improperly timed urine specimens
C. Refrigeration of the urine
D. Time of collecting blood sample
20. Given the following information, calculate the creatinine clearance: 24-hour urine volume: 1000 mL; serum creatinine: 2.0 mg/dL; urine creatinine: 200 mg/dL
21. Values for creatinine clearance tests on children are corrected for:
A. Body size
B. Urine volume
C. Activity level
D. Diet
22. Given the data serum creatinine: 1.1 mg/dL; age: 50 years, and weight: 72 kg, the estimated creatinine clearance using the Cockcroft-Gault formula is:
A. 46
B. 62
C. 82
D. 127
23. Variables that may be included in estimated creatinine clearance calculations include all of the following except:
A. Serum creatinine
B. Urine creatinine
C. Age
D. Blood urea nitrogen
24. An advantage to using cystatin C to monitor GFR is:
A. It does not require urine collection
B. It is not secreted by the tubules
C. It can be measured by immunoassay
D. All of the above
25. Solute dissolved in solvent will:
A. Decrease vapor pressure
B. Lower the boiling point
C. Decrease the osmotic pressure
D. Lower the specific gravity
26. Substances that may interfere with measurement of urine and serum osmolarity include all of the following except:
A. Ethanol
B. Lactic acid
C. Sodium
D. Lipids
27. The normal serum osmolarity is:
A. 50–100 mOsm
B. 275–300 mOsm
C. 400–500 mOsm
D. 3 times the urine osmolarity
28. After controlled fluid intake, the urine-to-serum osmolarity ratio should be at least:
A. 1:1
B. 2:1
C. 3:1
D. 4:1
29. Calculate the free water clearance from the following results: urine volume in 6 hours: 720 mL; urine osmolarity: 225 mOsm; plasma osmolarity: 300 mOsm
30. To provide an accurate measure of renal blood flow, a test substance should be completely:
A. Filtered by the glomerulus
B. Reabsorbed by the tubules
C. Secreted when it reaches the distal convoluted tubule
D. Cleared on each contact with functional renal tissue
31. Given the following data, calculate the effective renal plasma flow: urine volume in 2 hours: 240 mL; urine PAH: 150 mg/dL; plasma PAH: 0.5 mg/dL
32. Renal tubular acidosis can be caused by the:
A. Production of excessively acidic urine due to increased filtration of hydrogen ions
B. Production of excessively acidic urine due to increased secretion of hydrogen ions
C. Inability to produce an acidic urine due to impaired production of ammonia
D. Inability to produce an acidic urine due to increased production of ammonia
33. Tests performed to detect renal tubular acidosis after administering an ammonium chloride load include      all of the following except:
A. Urine ammonia
B. Arterial pH
C. Urine pH
D. Titratable acicity

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