The quizzes about Erythrocyte Maturation, Physiology, and Lifecycle

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The quizzes about Erythrocyte Maturation, Physiology, and Lifecycle
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Select the ONE answer that is BEST in each case.

The progression of erythropoiesis from prenatal life to adulthood is

1. The progression of erythropoiesis from prenatal life to adulthood is
A. yolk sac—red bone marrow—liver and spleen
B. yolk sac—liver and spleen—red bone marrow
C. red bone marrow—liver and spleen—yolk sac
D. liver and spleen—yolk sac—red bone marrow
2. Which of the following is (are) characteristic(s) of erythropoietin?
A. Glycoprotein
B. Secreted by the liver
C. Secreted by the kidneys
D. All of the above
3. Which of the following is a characteristic of erythropoietin?
A. Produced primarily in the liver of the unborn
B. Gene for erythropoietin is found on chromosome 11
C. Most erythropoietin is secreted by the liver in adults
D. Cannot cross the placental barrier
4. Stimulation of erythropoietin is caused by
A. tissue hypoxia
B. hypervolemia
C. inflammation
D. infection
5. The maturational sequences of an erythrocyte are
A. rubriblast—prorubricyte—metarubricyte— rubricyte-reticulocyte
B. rubriblast—prorubricyte—rubricyte—metarubricyte-reticulocyte
C. pronormoblast—basophilic normoblast—polychromatic normoblast—orthochromatic normoblast— reticulocyte
D. both B and C
6. What is the immature erythrocyte found in the bone marrow with the following characteristics: 12 to 17 mm in diameter, N:C of 4:1, nucleoli not usually apparent, and basophilic cytoplasm?
A. Rubriblast (pronormoblast)
B. Reticulocyte
C. Metarubricyte (orthochromatic normoblast)
D. Prorubricyte (basophilic normoblast)
7. The nucleated erythrocyte with a reddish pink cytoplasm and condensed chromatin pattern is a
A. rubricyte (polychromatic normoblast)
B. basophilic normoblast (prorubricyte)
C. metarubricyte (orthochromatic normoblast)
D. either B or C
8. With a normal diet, an erythrocyte remains in the reticulocyte stage in the circulating blood for
A. 1 day
B. 2.5 days
C. 3 days
D. 120 days
9. In a Wright-stained peripheral blood film, the reticulocyte will have a blue appearance. This is referred to as
A. megaloblastic maturation
B. bluemia
C. polychromatophilia
D. erythroblastosis
10. In the reticulocyte stage of erythrocytic development,
A. nuclear chromatin becomes more condensed
B. RNA is catabolized and ribosomes disintegrate
C. full hemoglobinization of the cell occurs
D. both B and C
11. On a Wright-stained peripheral blood smear, stress or shift reticulocytes are
A. smaller than normal reticulocytes
B. about the same size as normal reticulocytes
C. larger than normal reticulocytes
D. noticeable because of a decreased blue tint
12. The normal range for reticulocytes in adults is
A. 0% to 0.5%
B. 0.5% to 1.0%
C. 0.5% to 2.0%
D. 1.5% to 2.5%
13. If a male patient has a reticulocyte count of 5.0% and a packed cell volume of 0.45 L/L, what is his corrected reticulocyte count?
A. 2.5%
B. 4.5%
C. 5.0%
D. 10%
14. If a male patient has a reticulocyte count of 6.0% and a packed cell volume of 45%, what is his RPI?
A. 1.5
B. 3.0
C. 4.5
D. 6.0
15. Normal adult hemoglobin has
A. two alpha and two delta chains
B. three alpha and one beta chains
C. two alpha and two beta chains
D. two beta and two epsilon chains
16. The number of heme groups in a hemoglobin molecule is
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
17. Increased amounts of 2,3-DPG _____ the oxygen affinity of the hemoglobin molecule.
A. increases
B. decreases
C. does not alter
18. After a molecule of hemoglobin gains the first two oxygen molecules, the molecule
A. expels 2,3-DPG
B. has decreased oxygen affinity
C. becomes saturated with oxygen
D. adds a molecule of oxygen to an alpha chain
19. If normal adult (A1) and fetal hemoglobin F are compared, fetal hemoglobin has _____ affinity for oxygen.
A. less
B. the same
C. a greater
20. Oxyhemoglobin is a _____ than deoxyhemoglobin.
A. weaker acid
B. stronger acid
21. Heme is synthesized predominantly in the
A. liver
B. red bone marrow
C. mature erythrocytes
D. both A and B
24. The final steps in heme synthesis, including the formation of protoporphyrin, take place in
A. a cell’s nucleus
B. a cell’s cytoplasm
C. the spleen
D. the mitochondria
25. An acquired disorder of heme synthesis is
A. congenital erythropoietic porphyria
B. lead poisoning
C. hemolytic anemia
D. hemoglobinopathy
26. The protein responsible for the transport of iron in hemoglobin synthesis is
A. globin
B. transferrin
C. oxyhemoglobin
D. ferritin
29. Increased erythropoietin production in secondary polycythemia can be caused by
A. chronic lung disease
B. smoking
C. renal neoplasms
D. all of the above
30. Relative polycythemia exists when
A. increased erythropoietin is produced
B. the total blood volume is expanded
C. the plasma volume is increased
D. the plasma volume is decreased
31. Which of the following is (are) characteristic(s) of megaloblastic maturation?
A. Cells of some leukocytic cell lines are smaller than
normal
B. Nuclear maturation lags behind cytoplasmic maturation
C. Cytoplasmic maturation lags behind nuclear maturation
D. Erythrocytes are smaller than normal
34. Which of the following hemoglobin types is the major type present in a normal adult?
A. A
B. S
C. A
2
D. Bart
35. The alkaline denaturation test detects the presence of hemoglobin
A. A
1C
B. F
C. C
D. S
40. Fetal hemoglobin (hemoglobin F) persists until
A. a few days after birth
B. a few weeks after birth
C. several months after birth
D. adulthood
41. Cellulose acetate at pH 8.6 separates the hemoglobin
fractions
A. S
B. H
C. A
D. both A and C
42. If an alkaline (pH 8.6) electrophoresis is performed, hemoglobin E has the same mobility as hemoglobin
A. S
B. F
C. A
D. C
43. The limited metabolic ability of erythrocytes is owing to
A. the absence of RNA
B. the absence of ribosomes
C. no mitochondria for oxidative metabolism
D. the absence of DNA
44. Which of the following statements is (are) true of the erythrocytic cytoplasmic contents?
A. High in potassium ion
B. High in sodium ion
C. Contain glucose and enzymes necessary for
glycolysis
D. Both A and C
45. The Embden-Meyerhof glycolytic pathway uses _____ % of the erythrocyte’s total glucose.
A. 10
B. 20
C. 50
D. 90
46. The Embden-Meyerhof pathway net gain of ATP
provides high energy phosphates to
A. maintain membrane lipids
B. power the cation pump needed for the sodiumpotassium concentration pump and calcium flux
C. preserve the shape and flexibility of the cellular membrane
D. all of the above
47. The end product of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway of glucose metabolism in the erythrocyte is
A. pyruvate
B. lactate
C. glucose-6-phosphate
D. the trioses
48. The net gain in ATPs in the Embden-Meyerhof glycolytic pathway is
A. 1
B. 2
C. 4
D. 6
49. The most common erythrocytic enzyme deficiency involving the Embden-Meyerhof glycolytic pathway is a deficiency of
A. ATPase
B. pyruvate kinase
C. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
D. lactic dehydrogenase
50. If a defect in the oxidative pathway (hexose monophosphate shunt) occurs, what will result?
A. Insufficient amounts of reduced glutathione
B. Denaturation of globin
C. Precipitation of Heinz bodies
D. All of the above
51. The function of the methemoglobin reductase pathway
is to
A. prevent oxidation of heme iron
B. produce methemoglobinemia
C. provide cellular energy
D. control the rate of glycolysis
52. The Luebering-Rapoport pathway
A. permits the accumulation of 2,3-DPG
B. promotes glycolysis
C. produces cellular energy
D. produces acidosis
53. In conditions of acidosis,
A. erythrocytic glycolysis is reduced
B. available oxygen is increased
C. DPG levels fall to a level sufficient to normalize oxygen tension
D. all of the above
54. As the erythrocyte ages,
A. the membrane becomes less flexible with loss of cell
membrane
B. cellular hemoglobin increases
C. enzyme activity, particularly glycolysis, decreases
D. all of the above
55. Erythrocytic catabolism produces the disassembling of
hemoglobin followed by
A. iron transported in the plasma by transferrin
B. globin catabolized in the liver to amino acids and
then entering the amino acid pool
C. bilirubin formed from opened porphyrin ring and
carried by plasma albumin to the liver, conjugated,
and excreted in bile
D. all of the above
56. Which of the following statements are true of the intravascular destruction of erythrocytes?
A. It accounts for less than 10% of normal erythrocyte
breakdown.
B. Hemoglobin is released directly into blood.
C. Alpha and beta dimers are bound to haptoglobin.
D. All of the above.
57. The upper limit of the reference range of hemoglobin in
an adult male is

A. 10.5 to 12.0 g/dL
B. 12.5 to 14.0 g/dL
C. 13.5 to 15.0 g/dL
D. 14 to 18.0 g/dL

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