All of the following ligaments of the knee are intra-articular EXCEPT
The patellar ligament is extracapsular. The cruciate ligaments and menisci are classified as intra-articular and are found within the knee joint. The popliteal tendon is also intra-articular during part of its course
Which of the following arteries provides the main blood supply for the hip joint?
The main blood supply of the hip joint is from branches of the circumflex femoral arteries (especially the medial circumflex femoral artery) that travel in the retinacula (reflections of the capsule along the neck of the femur toward the head). These retinacular vessels may be damaged in femoral neck fractures and result in avascular necrosis of the femoral head
Which of the following ligaments prevents hyperextension of the hip joint during standing?
The fibrous capsule is reinforced anteriorly by the strong, Y-shaped iliofemoral ligament (of Bigelow) which attaches to the anterior inferior iliac spine and the acetabular rim proximally and the intertrochanteric line distally. The iliofemoral ligament prevents hyperextension of the hip during standing by screwing the femoral head into the acetabulum
A synovial protrusion beyond the free margin of the fibrous capsule onto the posterior aspect of the femoral neck forms a bursa for which of these muscle tendons?
A synovial protrusion beyond the free margin of the fibrous capsule onto the posterior aspect of the femoral neck forms a bursa for the obturator externus tendon
Which of the following three ligaments are damaged in the “unhappy triad” of knee injuries?
The ACL may tear when the tibial collateral ligament ruptures. First, the tibial collateral ligament ruptures, opening the joint on the medial side and possibly tearing the medial meniscus and ACL. This “unhappy triad of injuries” can result from clipping in football
Which of the following muscles passes out of the knee joint to reach the tibia?
The fibrous capsule of the knee is deficient on the lateral condyle to allow the tendon of the popliteus to pass out of the joint to attach to the tibia
Pain on lateral rotation of the tibia on the femur indicates damage to which of the following structures?
Pain on lateral rotation of the tibia on the femur indicates injury of the lateral meniscus, whereas pain on medial rotation of the tibia on the femur indicates injury of the medial meniscus
The lateral compartment of the foot contains which of the following muscles?
The lateral compartment of the foot contains the abductor and flexor digiti minimi brevis
All of the following statements concerning the ligament of the head of the femur are correct EXCEPT
The ligament of the head of the femur is weak and of little importance in strengthening the hip joint. Its wide end attaches to the margins of the acetabular notch and the transverse acetabular ligament. Its narrow end attaches to the pit in the head of the femur. Usually the ligament contains a small artery to the head of the femur
The oblique popliteal ligament is an expansion of the tendon of which of the following muscles?
The oblique popliteal ligament is an expansion of the tendon of the semimembranosus, which strengthens the fibrous capsule posteriorly
Which of the following statements concerning the tibial collateral ligament is correct?
The tibial collateral ligament (medial collateral ligament) is a strong, flat band that extends from the medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial surface of the tibia. At its midpoint, the deep fibers of the tibial collateral ligament are firmly attached to the medial meniscus. The tibial collateral ligament, weaker than the fibular collateral ligament, is more often damaged. As a result, the tibial collateral ligament and medial meniscus are commonly torn during contact sports such as football
The medial plantar nerve is a terminal branch of which of the following nerves?
The medial plantar nerve, the larger of the two terminal branches of the tibial nerve, passes deep to the abductor hallucis and runs anteriorly between the muscles and the flexor digitorum brevis on the lateral side of the medial plantar artery
Which of the following muscles is the most important muscle in stabilizing the knee?
The most important muscle in stabilizing the knee joint is the large quadriceps femoris, particularly inferior fibers of the vastus medialis and lateralis. The knee joint will function surprisingly well following a ligament strain if the quadriceps is well conditioned
The central compartment of the foot contains all of the following muscles EXCEPT
The central compartment of the foot contains the flexor digitorum brevis, flexor digitorum longus, quadratus plantae, lumbricals, proximal part of the tendon flexor hallucis longus, and the lateral plantar nerve and vessel
Which of the following genicular branches supplies the cruciate ligaments?
The middle genicular branches of the popliteal artery penetrate the fibrous capsule of the knee joint and supply the cruciate ligaments, synovial membrane, and peripheral margins of the menisci
All of the following statements concerning the fibular collateral ligament are correct EXCEPT
The fibular collateral ligament (lateral collateral ligament), rounded and cordlike, is strong. It extends inferiorly from the lateral epicondyle of the femur to the lateral surface of the head of fibula. The tendon of the popliteus passes deep to the fibular collateral ligament, separating it from the lateral meniscus. The tendon of the biceps femoris is also split into two parts by this ligament
All of the following statements concerning the saphenous nerve are correct EXCEPT
The saphenous nerve is the largest cutaneous branch of the femoral nerve. In addition to supplying the skin and fascia on the anterior and medial sides of the leg, the saphenous nerve passes anterior to the medial malleolus to the dorsum of the foot, where it supplies skin along the medial side of the foot as far as the head of the 1st metatarsal
Which of the following statements correctly applies to the lateral meniscus?
The lateral meniscus is nearly circular and is smaller and more movable than the medial meniscus. The tendon of the popliteus separates the lateral meniscus from the fibular collateral ligament. A strong tendinous slip, the posterior meniscofemoral ligament, joins the lateral meniscus to the posterior cruciate ligament and the medial femoral condyle. The lateral meniscus acts like a shock absorber
Which of the following statements concerning the anterior cruciate ligament is correct?
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), the weaker of the two cruciate ligaments, arises from the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia, just posterior to the attachment of the medial meniscus. It extends superiorly, posteriorly, and laterally to attach to the posterior part of the medial side of the lateral condyle of the femur. The ACL has a relatively poor blood supply. It is slack when the knee is flexed and taut when it is fully extended, preventing posterior displacement.
All of the following statements concerning the menisci of the knee joint are correct EXCEPT
The menisci are thicker at their external margins and taper to thin, unattached edges in the interior of the joint. Wedge-shaped in transverse section, the menisci are firmly attached at their ends to the intercondylar area of the tibia. Their external margins attach to the fibrous capsule of the knee joint. The transverse ligament of the knee, a slender, fibrous band, joins the anterior edges of the menisci, allowing them to move together during knee movements
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