All of the following nerves are ventral primary rami EXCEPT
The superior cluneal nerves are dorsal rami of L1–L3 and the middle cluneal nerves are dorsal rami of S1–S3. The sciatic, pudendal, posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh, and the gluteal nerves are all ventral primary rami
All of the following statements concerning the sciatic nerve are correct EXCEPT
The sciatic nerve is the largest nerve in the body. It is so large that it receives its own blood supply from the inferior gluteal artery. It runs inferolaterally under cover of the gluteus maximus, midway between the greater trochanter and the ischial tuberosity. The sciatic nerve is really two nerves, the tibial and common fibular
The piriformis syndrome involves which of the following nerves?
A pain in the buttock may result from compression of the sciatic nerve by the piriformis muscle (piriformis syndrome)
All of the following statements concerning the internal pudendal artery are correct EXCEPT
The internal pudendal artery leaves the gluteal region immediately by crossing the ischial spine and re-entering the pelvis throughthe lesser sciatic foramen. The artery passes to the perineum with the pudendal nerve and supplies the external genitalia and muscles in the pelvic region. It does not supply any structures in the gluteal region
Which of the following muscles is located in the posterior aspect of the thigh?
The three muscles in the posterior aspect of the thigh are the hamstrings, which include the semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and biceps femoris
All of the following statements concerning the hamstring muscles are correct EXCEPT
The hamstring muscles arise from the ischial tuberosity and are innervated by the tibial division of the sciatic nerve. The short head of the biceps does not meet these criteria. The hamstrings are extensors of the thigh and flexors of the leg. A person with paralyzed hamstrings tends to fall forward because the gluteus maximus muscles cannot maintain the necessary muscle tone to stand straight
The innervation for the short head of the biceps is provided by which of the following nerves?
The long head of the biceps femoris is innervated by the tibial division of the sciatic nerve and the short head of the biceps is innervated by the fibular division of the sciatic nerve
A line drawn from the anterior superior iliac spine to the ischial tuberosity (Nelaton’s line), passing over the lateral aspect of the hip, normally passes over which of the following structures?
A line drawn from the anterior superior iliac spine to the ischial tuberosity (Nélaton’s line), passing over the lateral aspect of the hip region, normally passes over or near the top of the greater trochanter
All of the following statements concerning the popliteal fossa are correct EXCEPT
The biceps femoris forms the superolateral border and the semimembranosus muscle forms the superomedial border. The medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius form the inferolateral and inferomedial borders. The contents of the fossa include the small saphenous vein, popliteal arteries and veins, and tibial and common fibular nerves
The floor of the popliteal fossa includes which of the following structures?
The floor of the popliteal fossa is formed by the popliteal surface of the femur, the oblique popliteal ligament, and the popliteal fascia over the popliteus
The lateral sural nerve is a branch of which of the following nerves?
The medial sural nerve is derived from the tibial nerve and the lateral sural nerve isderived from the common fibular. The medial and lateral sural nerves unite to form the sural nerve
Which of the following muscles dorsiflexes the ankle?
Dorsiflexors of the ankle include the tibialis anterior, extensors digitorum longus, hallucis longus, and fibularis tertius
Muscles that evert the foot include which of the following muscles?
Both the fibularis longus and brevis evert the foot. The fibularis tertius also aids in eversion of the foot
All of the following statements correctly apply to the inferior extensor retinaculum EXCEPT
The superior extensor retinaculum is a strong, broad band of deep fascia passing from the fibula to the tibia, proximal to the malleoli. The inferior extensor retinaculum is a Y-shaped band of deep fascia that attaches laterally to the anterosuperior surface of the calcaneus. It forms a strong loop around the tendons of the fibularis tertius and the extensor digitorum longus muscle
Which of the following muscles is the strongest dorsiflexor and invertor of the foot?
The tibialis anterior is the strongest dorsiflexor and inverter of the foot
All of the following muscles are located in the deep muscle group of the posterior compartment EXCEPT
The plantaris is located in the superficial group of muscles in the posterior compartment
Which of the following muscles is a flexor of the knee joint?
The popliteus is a flexor of the knee joint
Which of the following muscles is the powerful “push-off” muscle?
The flexor hallucis longus is the powerful “push-off” muscle during walking, running, and jumping
Which of the following muscles contract to assist the posterior cruciate ligament in preventing anterior displacement of the femur on the tibia?
When a person is standing with the knee partly flexed, the popliteus contracts to assist the posterior cruciate ligament in preventing anterior displacement of the femur on the tibia
Which of following muscles is included in the triceps surae?
Together, the two-headed gastrocnemius and soleus form the three-headed triceps surae
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