Which of the following conditions is associated with lateral deviation of the great toe?
Hallux valgus is a foot deformity characterized by lateral deviation of the great toe. Hammertoe is a deformity in which the proximal phalanx is permanently flexed at the metatarsophalangeal joint and the middle phalanx is plantarflexed at the interphalangeal joint. The distal phalanx is also flexed. Claw toes are characterized by hyperextension of the metatarsophalangeal joints and flexion of the distal interphalangeal joints. Pes planus is flat feet, and clubfoot refers to a foot that is twisted. The foot is inverted, the ankle is plantarflexed, and the forefoot is adducted
The tendon of the biceps femoris and the neck of the fibula may be used as a guide for locating which of the following nerves?
The tendon of the biceps femoris may be traced by palpating its distal attachment to the lateral side of the head of the fibula. This tendon and the neck of the fibula guide the examining finger to the common fibular nerve
Which of the following fractures is the most troublesome and problematic?
Fractures of the femoral neck are intracapsular, and realignment of the neck fragments requires internal skeletal fixation. Femoral neck fractures are among the most troublesome and problematic of all fractures
Which of the following major joints is the most frequently injured?
The ankle is the most frequently injured major joint in the body. Ankle sprains are most common. A sprained ankle is nearly always an inversion injury
All of the following muscles are lateral rotators of the hip joint EXCEPT
Medial rotators of the hip joint include anterior fibers of the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and tensor fascia lata; lateral rotators include the obturator externus, obturator internus, superior gemellus, piriformis, quadratus femoris, and gluteus maximus
Which of the of the following areas is involved in tibial nerve entrapment?
The tibial nerve leaves the posterior compartment of the leg by passing deep to the flexor retinaculum in the interval between the medial malleolus and calcaneus. The area involved is from the medial malleolus to the calcaneus, and the heel pain results from compression of the tibial nerve by the flexor retinaculum
All of the following statements concerning the medial longitudinal arch of the foot are correct EXCEPT
The talar head is the keystone of the medial longitudinal arch
Which of the following muscle tendons is commonly removed for grafting without causing disability?
Because of its minor role, the plantaris tendon can be removed for grafting without causing any disability
All of the following ligaments reinforce the fibrous capsule on the medial side of the ankle EXCEPT
The lateral ligament consists of the anterior and posterior talofibular ligaments and the calcaneofibular ligament. The three discrete ligaments are collectively referred to as the lateral ligament. The fibrous capsule is reinforced medially by the large, strong medial ligament (deltoid ligament), which attaches proximally to the medial malleolus. This ligament consists of the tibionavicular, tibiocalcaneal, and anterior and posterior tibiotalar ligaments
All of the following statements concerning the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament are correct EXCEPT
The plantar calcaneonavicular ligamentum (spring ligament) extends from the sustentaculum tali to the posteroinferior surface of the navicular. It plays an important role in maintaining the longitudinal arch of the foot
Which of the following groups of muscles produce dorsiflexion of the ankle?
Dorsiflexion of the ankle is produced by the muscles in the anterior compartment of the leg
All of the following statements concerning the transverse tarsal joint are correct EXCEPT
The transverse tarsal joint is formed by the combined talonavicular part of the talocalcaneonavicular and calcaneocuboid joints, two separate joints aligned transversely. Transection across the transverse tarsal joint is a standard method for surgical amputation of the foot. Inversion and eversion of the foot are the main movements involving these joints
Which of the following muscles is the strongest flexor of the hip joint?
The iliopsoas is the strongest flexor of the hip joint
The strongest dorsiflexor of the foot is which of the following muscles?
The tibialis anterior is the strongest dorsiflexor and invertor of the foot
Shin splints usually involve muscles in which of the following compartments?
Shin splints commonly result from traumatic injury or athletic overexertion of muscles in the anterior compartment—especially the tibialis anterio
The grip of the malleoli on the trochlea is strongest during which of the following movements of the ankle?
The grip of the malleoli on the trochlea is strongest during dorsiflexion of the foot, because this movement forces the wider, anterior part of the trochlea posteriorly, spreading the tibia and fibula slightly apar
Which of the following statements correctly applies in Pott’s fracture-dislocation?
A Pott’s fracture-dislocation of the ankle occurs when the foot is forcibly everted. This action pulls on the extremely strong medial ligament, often tearing off the medial malleolus. The talus then moves laterally, shearing off the lateral malleolus or, more commonly, breaking the fibula superior to the inferior tibiofibular joint
Which of the following knee support structures is considered to be the most important in the stabilization of the joint?
The stability of the knee joint depends on the strength and actions of the surrounding muscles and their tendons. The ligaments that connect the femur and tibia are also important. Of these supports, the muscles are most important; therefore, many sport injuries are preventable through appropriate conditioning and training. The most important muscle in stabilizing the knee joint is the large quadriceps femoris, particularly inferior fibers of the vastus medialis and lateralis. The knee joint will function surprisingly well following a ligament strain if the quadriceps is well conditioned
Which of the following statements correctly applies to genu valgum?
Genu varum and genu valgum result in deviation of the tibia from the midline. In genu varum, the tibia is diverted medially, and in genu valgum, the tibia is diverted laterally; these deformities cause unequal weight distribution. In the varum deformity, the medial side of the knee takes all the pressure, leading to wear and tear of the medial meniscus
Which of the following arteries is usually evaluated during a physical examination of the peripheral vascular system?
The pulse of the dorsalis pedis artery, or dorsal artery of the foot, is evaluated during a physical examination of the peripheral vascular system. Dorsalis pedis pulses may be palpated with the feet slightly dorsiflexed
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