Which of the following statements concerning the gracilis muscle is correct?
The long, strap-like muscle lies along the medial side of the thigh and knee. It is the only muscle of the adductor group that crosses the knee. It is the most superficial of the adductor group and is the weakest member
All of the following statements concerning the adductor magnus are correct EXCEPT
The adductor magnus is the largest muscle in the adductor group. It is located in the medial compartment of the thigh. This large adductor is a composite, triangular muscle that has adductor and hamstring parts. The two parts differ in their attachments, nerve supply, and main actions
Which of the following statements correctly applies to the adductor hiatus?
The adductor hiatus is an opening in the aponeurotic distal attachment of the adductor magnus. It transmits the femoral artery and vein from the adductor canal in the thigh to the popliteal fossa posterior to the knee. The opening is just superior to the adductor tubercle of the femur
All of the following statements concerning the femoral triangle are correct EXCEPT
The femoral triangle is bounded superiorly by the inguinal ligament, medially by the adductor longus, and laterally by the sartorius. The femoral triangle is bisected by the femoral artery and vein, which leave and enter the adductor canal at its apex. The saphenous nerve descends through the femoral triangle
All of the following statements concerning the femoral sheath are correct EXCEPT
The femoral sheath extends 3 to 4 cm inferior to the inguinal ligament and encloses proximal parts of the femoral vessel and the femoral canal. The sheath is formed by an inferior prolongation of transversalis and iliopsoas fascia. The femoral sheath does not enclose the femoral nerve. The sheath ends by becoming continuous with the adventitia of the femoral vessels
All of the following statements concerning the femoral canal are correct EXCEPT
The medial compartment of the femoral sheath is the femoral canal. It extends distally to the level of the proximal edge of the saphenous opening. It allows the femoral vein to expand when venous return from the lower limb is increased. It contains loose connective tissue, fat, a few lymphatic vessels, and sometimes a deep inguinal lymph node (Cloquet’s node)
All of the following statements concerning the femoral ring are correct EXCEPT
The femoral ring is closed at the proximal end by extraperitoneal fatty tissue, which forms the femoral septum. The boundaries of the femoral ring include the partition between the femoral canal and the femoral vein laterally. Posteriorly, the superior ramus of the pubis is covered by the pectineus muscle. Its medial boundary is the lacunar ligament; anteriorly, the boundary is the medial part of the inguinal ligament
Which of the following statements concerning the femoral artery is correct?
The femoral artery is the chief artery of the lower limb and is the continuation of the external iliac artery. It bisects the femoral triangle at its apex and enters the adductor canal deep to the sartorius muscle
Which of the following statements concerning the deep artery of the thigh is correct?
The deep artery of the thigh is the largest branch of the femoral artery and the chief artery of the thigh. It arises in the femoral triangle from the lateral side of the femoral artery
Which of the following arteries supplies most of the blood to the head and neck of the femur?
The medial circumflex femoral artery is especially important because it supplies most of the blood to the head and neck of the femur
All of the following statements concerning the adductor canal are correct EXCEPT
The adductor canal (Hunter’s canal) is approximately 15 cm long and is a narrow fascial tunnel in the thigh running from the apex of the femoral triangle to the adductor hiatus in the tendon of the adductor magnus. Located deep or posterior to the middle third of the sartorius, the adductor canal provides an intermuscular passage through which the femoral vessels pass to reach the popliteal fossa. The contents of the adductor canal include the femoral vessels, saphenous nerve, and nerve to the vastus medialis
Which of the following statements concerning the lesser sciatic foramen is correct?
The greater sciatic foramen is the passageway for structures entering or leaving the pelvis, whereas the lesser sciatic foramen is the passageway for structures entering or leaving the perineum. The greater sciatic foramen is the opening for all lower limb arteries and nerves leaving the pelvis and entering the gluteal region
All of the following structures pass through the greater sciatic foramen EXCEPT
The greater sciatic foramen is the passageway for the sciatic nerve, piriformis muscle, and gluteal vessels. The pudendal nerve enters the perineum through the lesser sciatic foramen
All of the following statements concerning the gluteus maximus are correct EXCEPT
The gluteus maximus is used when rising from the sitting position or straightening from the bending position. It is used in climbing steps and running. It also assists in making the knee stable. It is used very little during casual walking and when one is standing motionless
The ischial bursa separates the inferior part of which of the following muscles from the ischial tuberosity?
The ischial bursa separates the inferior part of the gluteus maximus from the ischial tuberosity, which is often absent
All of the following statements concerning the gluteus medius and minimus are correct EXCEPT
The gluteus medius and minimus have the same actions and nerve supply and are supplied by the superior gluteal arteries. Both muscles abduct the thigh and rotate it medially. They play an essential role during locomotion and are largely responsible for preventing sagging of the unsupported side of the pelvis during walking
The positive Trendelenburg sign is associated with injuries to which of the following?
When the weight is on both feet, the pelvis is evenly supported and does not sag. When the weight is borne by one foot, the muscles on the same side hold the pelvis so the pelvis will not sag on the side of the raised foot. When the gluteus medius and minimus (abductors of the thigh) are inactive owing to injury of the superior gluteal nerve, the supporting and steadying action of these muscles is lost and the pelvis falls on the side of the raised limb. This is referred to as a positive Trendelenburg sign
Which of the following muscles is part of the triceps coxae?
The obturator internus and the superior and inferior gemelli form a tricipital (threeheaded) muscle that is sometimes called the triceps coxae
All of the following muscles are lateral rotators of the thigh EXCEPT
The gluteus maximus, piriformis, obturator internus and externus, and superior and inferior gemelli are all lateral rotators of the thigh. Both the gluteus medius and the gluteus minimus are medial rotators of the thigh
All of the following statements concerning the inferior clunial nerves are correct EXCEPT
The inferior clunial nerves are gluteal branches of the posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh, a derivative of the sacral plexus (ventral rami S1 through S3). These nerves curl around the inferior border of the gluteus maximus and supply the inferior half of the buttock
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