A fracture of which of the following bones is among the most troublesome and problematic of all fractures?
A fracture of the femoral neck is among the most troublesome and problematic of all fractures because of the instability of the fracture site. Furthermore, the periosteum covering the femoral neck is exceedingly thin and has extremely limited powers of osteogenesis (bone formation). Because the retinacular arteries arise from the medial circumflex femoral arteries and run parallel to the femoral neck on their way to supply the femoral head, they are vulnerable to injury when the neck of the femur fractures. Rupture of these vessels cause degeneration (necrosis) of the femoral head and bleeding into the hip joint
Which of the following statements applies to the 2nd metatarsal bone?
The 1st metatarsal is shorter and stouter than the others. The 2nd metatarsal is the longest. The bases of the metatarsals articulate with the cuneiform and cuboid bones. The base of the 5th metatarsal has a large tuberosity
The margin of the acetabulum is deficient inferiorly at which of the following structures?
The margin of the acetabulum is deficient inferiorly at the acetabular notch, which makes the fossa resemble a cup with a piece of its lip missing
The sustentaculum tali projects from the superior surface of which of the following bones?
The shelf-like sustentaculum tali projects from the superior border of the medial surface of the calcaneus and supports the talar head
The adductor tubercle is located on which of the following bones?
The medial surface of the medial condyle has a large and prominent medial epicondyle, superior to which is another elevation, the adductor tubercle
All of the following statements concerning the femur are correct EXCEPT
The femur is the longest and heaviest bone in the body. In the average adult, its length is approximately one-quarter of the person’s height (108 cm or 18 in.). The distal end of the femur undergoes ossification just before birth
Which of the following bones articulates with the fibula, tibia, calcaneus, and navicular?
The talus articulates with the fibula, calcaneus, navicular, and tibia
A deficiency in the smooth articular surface of the acetabulum is known as which of the following?
The acetabular notch and fossa comprise a deficiency in the smooth articular lunate surface of the acetabulum, which actually articulates with the head of the femur
Which of the following structures covers the saphenous opening in the fascia lata?
The saphenous opening in the fascia lata is a deficiency in the deep fascia lata inferior to the medial part of the inguinal ligament, approximately 4 cm inferolateral to the pubic tubercle. The medial margin of the saphenous opening is smooth, but its superior, lateral, and inferior margins form a sharp crescentic edge, the falciform margin. The sickle-shaped margin of the saphenous opening is joined at its medial margin by fibrofatty tissue—the cribriform fascia
Which of the following bones is the largest and strongest bone of the foot?
The calcaneus is the largest and strongest bone in the foot. The calcaneus transmits most of the body weight from the talus to the ground
Which of the following bones is the most common site for a compound fracture?
The body of the tibia is the most common site for a compound fracture—one in which the skin is perforated and blood vessels are torn
Which of the following structures passes through the saphenous opening?
The great saphenous vein passes through the saphenous opening and cribriform fascia to enter the femoral vein. Some efferent lymphatic vessels from the superficial inguinal lymph nodes also pass through the saphenous opening and cribriform fascia to enter the deep inguinal lymph nodes
Which of the following statements concerning the components of the quadriceps femoris is correct?
The rectus femoris is considered to be the “kicking muscle.” The vastus lateralis is the largest component of the quadriceps. The vastus intermedius lies deep to the rectus femoris, and the articular muscle is considered to be a derivative of the vastus intermedius
When it is said that an elderly person has a “broken hip,” the usual injury is a fracture of which of the following structures?
Elderly people fracture the neck of the femur and refer to the injury as a “broken hip”
The small saphenous vein empties into which of the following veins?
The small saphenous vein ascends posterior to the lateral malleolus and passes along the lateral border of the calcaneal tendon. It then ascends between the heads of the gastrocnemius muscle and empties into the popliteal vein in the popliteal fossa
The medial and lateral malleoli articulate with which of the following bones?
The lateral surface of the medial malleolus articulates with the talus, and the lateral malleolus helps hold the talus in its socket
All of the following statements concerning the quadriceps femoris are correct EXCEPT
The quadriceps femoris forms the main bulk of the anterior thigh muscles and collectively constitutes the largest and one of the most powerful muscles in the body. The quadriceps is the great extensor of the leg, and all four of its parts combine to from a tendinous attachment to the tibia. The patella also provides additional leverage for the quadriceps
Which of the following statements correctly applies to the iliopsoas muscle?
The iliopsoas is the chief flexor of the thigh, and when the thigh is fixed, it flexes the trunk on the hip. Its broad lateral part, the iliacus, and its long medial part, the psoas major, arise from the iliac fossa and lumbar vertebrae, respectively. It is an anterior thigh muscle
All of the following statements concerning the sartorius muscle are correct EXCEPT
The sartorius is known as the “tailor’s muscle.” It is the longest muscle in the body and acts across two joints. It flexes the hip joint and participates in flexion of the knee. It is located in the anterior compartment of the thigh
The deep fascia of the thigh is known as which of the following?
The deep fascia of the thigh is called fascia lata and the deep fascia of the leg is called crural fascia. Scarpa’s fascia is the membranous fascia of the lower abdominal wall and Colles’ fascia is located in the perineum
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