How are the pelvic splanchnic nerves distinct from other splanchnic nerves?
The pelvic splanchnic nerves are distinct from other splanchnic nerves in that they have nothing to do with the sympathetic trunks and are derived directly from ventral rami of spinal nerves S2 through S4. They also convey presynaptic parasympathetic fibers to the inferior hypogastric plexus
All of the following statements concerning the esophagus are correct EXCEPT
The esophagus is a muscular tube (approximately 25 cm long) that extends from the pharynx to the stomach. It normally has four constrictions and is crossed by the arch of the aorta and the left main bronchus
All of the following structures may herniate into the thoracic cavity when there is a traumatic diaphragmatic hernia EXCEPT
The stomach, spleen, mesentery, and intestine may herniate into the thorax when there is a traumatic diaphragmatic hernia
Which of the following statements correctly relates to the 3rd part of the duodenum?
The inferior or horizontal (3rd) part of the duodenum runs transversally to the left, passing over the inferior vena cava, aorta, and L3 vertebra. It is crossed by the superior mesenteric artery and vein and the root of the mesentery
The cisterna chyli is the inferior end of which of the following structures?
In a small proportion of individuals, the inferior end of the thoracic duct—which begins with the convergence of the main lymphatic ducts of the abdomen—takes the form of the commonly depicted, thin-walled sac or dilation known as the cisterna chyli
All of the following statements concerning the spleen are correct EXCEPT
The splenic artery is the largest branch of the celiac trunk. It follows a tortuous course posterior to the omental bursa, anterior to the left kidney, and along the superior border of the pancreas. It divides into five or more branches that enter the hilum of the spleen
The bifurcation of the abdominal aorta occurs at the level of which of the following structures?
The inferior vena cava begins anterior to the L5 vertebra by the union of the common iliac veins. The union occurs approximately 2.5 cm to the right of the median plane, inferior to the bifurcation of the aorta and posterior to the proximal part of the right common iliac artery
The anatomical left and right lobes of the liver are separated on the diaphragmatic surface of the liver by which of the following structures?
In the current terminology, the left liver includes the caudate lobe and most of the quadrate lobe. The anatomical left lobe is separated from these lobes on the visceral surface by the fissure for the round ligament of the liver and the fissure for the ligamentum venosum; on the diaphragmatic surface the anatomical left lobe is separated by the attachment of the falciform ligament
The left gastro-omental artery arises from which of the following arteries?
The left gastro-omental artery arises from the splenic artery and courses along the greater curvature to anastomose with the right gastro-omental artery
Most reabsorption of water occurs in which of the following structures?
Most reabsorption occurs in the ascending colon
All of the following structures pass through the esophageal hiatus EXCEPT
The esophageal hiatus is an oval aperture for the esophagus in the muscle of the right crus of the diaphragm at the level of the T10 vertebra. The esophageal hiatus also transmits the anterior and posterior vagal trunks, esophageal branches of the left gastric vessels, and a few lymphatics
Which of the following structures is avascular?
The appendicular artery is located in the mesoappendix and the anterior cecal artery is located in the superior ileocecal fold. Both the appendix and cecum are vascular. The inferior ileocecal fold is avascular
Rugae are located in which of the following structures?
The smooth surface of the gastric mucosa, mucous layer of the stomach, is thrown into longitudinal ridges when contracted. These are the gastric folds or rugae and most obvious along the greater curvature of the stomach
Digestion occurs mainly in which of the following structures?
Digestion occurs mainly in the stomach and duodenum. Peristalsis—ring-like, contraction waves that begin around the middle of the stomach and move slowly toward the pylorus—is responsible for mixing the masticated food mass with gastric juices and for emptying the contents of the stomach into the duodenum
The parasympathetic root of the celiac plexus is a branch of which of the following?
The parasympathetic root of the celiac plexus is a branch of the posterior vagal trunk that contains fibers from the right and left vagal nerves. The sympathetic roots of the plexus are the greater and lesser splanchnic nerves
In the developing embryo, the midgut rotates 270 degrees around which of the following structures?
For several weeks the rapidly growing midgut, supplied by the superior mesenteric artery, is physiologically herniated into the proximal part of the umbilical cord. It is attached to the yolk sac by the yolk stalk. As it returns to the abdominal cavity, the midgut rotates 270 degrees around the axis of the superior mesenteric artery
Which of the following statements correctly applies to the suprarenal medulla?
The suprarenal medulla is derived from neural crest cells associated with the sympathetic nervous system. The chromaffin cells of the medulla are related to sympathetic (postganglionic) neurons in both derivation (neural crest cells) and function. These cells secrete catecholamines (mostly epinephrine) into the bloodstream in response to signals from presynaptic neurons
All of the following statements concerning the psoas major muscle are correct EXCEPT
The psoas muscle is a long, thick, fusiform muscle that lies lateral to the lumbar vertebrae. Psoas is a Greek word meaning “muscle of the loin.” The muscle passes inferolaterally, deep to the inguinal ligament to reach the lesser trochanter of the femur. The lumbar plexus of nerves is embedded in the posterior part of the psoas
The greater and lesser splanchnic nerves pass through the diaphragm via which of the following structures?
The sympathetic trunks pass deep to the medial arcuate ligament. There are two small apertures in each crus of the diaphragm; one transmits the greater and the other the lesser splanchnic nerve
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