All of the following statements concerning the pelvic cavity are correct EXCEPT
The superior boundary of the pelvic cavity is the pelvic inlet. The pelvis is limited inferiorly by the pelvic outlet, which is closed by the musculofascial pelvic diaphragm and bounded posteriorly by the coccyx and anteriorly by the pubic symphysis
All of the following bones contribute to the formation of the pelvic cavity EXCEPT
The pelvic girdle is formed by the hip (ischium, pubis, and ilium) bones and the sacrum
Which of the following structures is located between the ischial spine and the ischial tuberosity?
The concavity between the ischial spine and the ischial tuberosity is the lesser sciatic notch. The larger concavity, the greater sciatic notch, is superior to the ischial spine and is formed in part by the ilium
The lateral part of the superior ramus of the pubis forms which of the following structures?
The pubis is an angulated bone with a superior ramus that helps to form the acetabulum and an inferior ramus that helps to form the obturator foramen. A thickening on the anterior part of the body of the pubis is the pubic crest, which ends laterally as a prominent bump, the pubic tubercle. The lateral part of the superior ramus has an oblique ridge known as the pecten pubis or pectineal line of the pubis
All of the following structures provide boundaries for the pelvic inlet EXCEPT
The pelvic inlet is bounded by the superior margin of the pubic symphysis anteriorly, posterior border of the pubic crest, pecten pubis, arcuate line of the ilium, anterior border of the ala of the sacrum, and the sacral promontory
When a person is in the anatomical position, which of the following structures lie in the same vertical plane?
When a person is in the anatomical position, the anterior superior iliac spines and the anterior aspect of the pubic symphysis lie in the same vertical plane
Weak areas of the pelvis include all of the following EXCEPT
Weak areas of the pelvis include the pubic rami, acetabula, sacroiliac joint, and alae of the ilium
The pelvic floor is formed by all of the following muscles EXCEPT
The piriformis muscles cover the posterolateral wall of the pelvis. The pelvic floor is formed by the funnel-shaped pelvic diaphragm, which consists of the levator ani and coccygeus. The levator ani includes the pubococcygeus, puborectalis, and iliococcygeus
Which of the following muscles covers and pads the lateral pelvic wall?
The bony framework of the lateral pelvic walls is formed by the hip bones and the obturator foramen, which is closed by the obturator membrane. The obturator internus muscles cover and thus pad most of the lateral pelvic walls
All of the following statements concerning the sciatic nerve are correct EXCEPT
The two main nerves of the sacral plexus include the sciatic and pudendal. The sciatic nerve is the largest and broadest nerve in the body. It is formed by the ventral rami of L4-S3, which converge on the anterior surface of the piriformis. The sciatic nerve usually passes through the greater sciatic foramen, inferior to the piriformis, to enter the gluteal region
All of the following statements concerning the pudendal nerve are correct EXCEPT
The pudendal nerve is derived from the anterior divisions of the ventral rami of S2 through S4. It accompanies the internal pudendal artery and leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen between the piriformis and coccygeus muscles. It is the main nerve of the perineum and the chief sensory nerve of the external genitalia
Which of the following nerves exits the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen, superior to the piriformis?
The superior gluteal nerve arises from the posterior divisions of the ventral rami of L4 through S1 and leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen, superior to the piriformis
Which of the following statements concerning the sacral sympathetic trunks is correct?
The sacral sympathetic trunks descend posterior to the rectum in the extraperitoneal connective tissue and send gray rami communicantes to each of the ventral rami of the sacral and coccygeal nerves. Each of the sacral trunks is smaller than the lumbar trunks and usually has four sympathetic ganglia
The inferior hypogastric plexus receives fibers from which of the following nerves?
The pelvic splanchnic nerves merge with the hypogastric nerves to form the inferior hypogastric (and pelvic) plexuses.
All of the following arteries enter the true pelvis EXCEPT
Four main arteries enter the lesser or true pelvis. The internal iliac and ovarian arteries are paired, and the median sacral and superior rectal arteries are unpaired. The testicular artery does not enter the true pelvis, as it follows the testes through the inguinal canal into the scrotum
Which of the following arteries is considered to be the artery of the pelvis?
The internal iliac artery is the artery of the pelvis; however, it does supply branches to the buttocks, thighs, and the perineum
Which of the following arteries arises from the anterior division of the internal iliac?
The superior gluteal and iliolumbar arteries arise from the posterior division of the internal iliac arteries. The gonadal arteries arise from the abdominal aorta and the superior rectal arteries from the inferior mesenteric artery. The umbilical, obturator, uterine, vaginal, internal pudendal, and inferior gluteal arteries arise from the anterior division of the internal iliac arteries
All of the following statements concerning the ureters are correct EXCEPT
The ureters are muscular tubes, 25 to 30 cm long, that connect the kidneys to the urinary bladder. They are retroperitoneal, with their superior halves in the abdomen and their inferior halves in the pelvis. The pelvic part of the ureters begins where it crosses the bifurcation of the common iliac artery
The uvula of the bladder is located in which of the following locations?
The uvula of the bladder is a slight projection of the trigone of the bladder. It is usually more prominent in older men
Parasympathetic fibers to the bladder are derived from which of the following nerves?
Parasympathetic fibers to the bladder are derived from the pelvic splanchnic nerves. They are motor to the detrusor muscle and inhibitory to the internal sphincter. Sympathetic fibers to the bladder are derived from T11 through L2
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