Home Laboratory QuizzesBiochemistry Quizzes [MCQs] Integrated Metabolism – Vitamins, Minerals, and Hormones – Part 1 (20 test)

[MCQs] Integrated Metabolism – Vitamins, Minerals, and Hormones – Part 1 (20 test)

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Quizzes about Integrated Metabolism—Vitamins, Minerals, and Hormones - Part 1 (20 test)

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See all quizzes of  the  Integrated Metabolism—Vitamins, Minerals, and Hormones at here:

Part 1 (20 test) | Part 2 (18 test – end)  

1. A 48-year-old Caucasian male presents with congestive heart failure with elevated liver His skin has a grayish pigmentation. The levels of liver enzymes are higher than those usually seen in congestive heart failure, suggesting an inflammatory process (hepatitis) with scarring (cirrhosis) of the liver. A liver biopsy discloses a marked increase in iron storage. In humans, molecular iron (Fe) is which of the following?

  1. Stored primarily in the spleen
  2. Stored in combination with ferritin
  3. Excreted in the urine as Fe2+
  4. Absorbed in the intestine by albumin
  5. Absorbed in the ferric (Fe3+) form

2. Intestinal bowel resections are necessary for autoimmune inflammatory diseases such as Crohn disease and for congenital anomalies such as malrotation or volvulus (twisted intestine with impaired blood supply). Once the absorptive intestinal mucosa falls below a certain length, oral or parenteral alimentation must be instituted to maintain In such solutions, which of the following nutrients is most dispensable?

  1. Protein
  2. Iodine
  3. Carbohydrates
  4. Lipids
  5. Calcium

3. A 40-year-old African American male is concerned about weight gain acquired during his stressful schedule as a small business He embarks on a low- carbohydrate diet consisting of packaged or dried meats that are convenient for travel and office meals. Which of the following vitamins would most likely become deficient on this diet?

  1. Thiamine
  2. Niacin
  3. Cobalamin
  4. Pantothenic acid
  5. Vitamin C

4. Children with autism and other disorders with mental disability are often put on megavitamin supplements despite no scientific evidence of benefit. Although most vitamins are harmless in excess, merely being excreted in urine, vitamin A can be Which of the following accurately describes vitamin A?

  1. It is not an essential vitamin.
  2. It is related to tocopherol.
  3. It is a component of rhodopsin.
  4. It is derived from ethanol.
  5. It is also known as opsin.

5. A 12-year-old Caucasian girl is hospitalized for evaluation of a possible seizure disorder because she has staring spells, lethargy, and irritability (not herself) once or twice per A 24-hour electroencephalogram shows diffuse epileptic foci that develop some 4 to 6 hours after feeding, and low serum glucose is noted during these periods. Which of the following dietary supplements might help  this child?

  1. Malate and niacin
  2. Acetyl-CoA and biotin
  3. Acetyl-CoA and thiamine pyrophosphate
  4. Oxaloacetate and pyridoxine
  5. Oxaloacetate and niacin

6. A group of neurodegenerative diseases with onset ranging from neonates to adults have been found to involve deficiency of pantothenic acid kinase (eg, Hallervorden-Spatz disease, MIM*234200). The correlation between defective pantothenic acid activation and loss of myelin to cause neurodegenerative disease relates to its role in which of the following?

  1. Decarboxylation reactions
  2. Acetylation and acyl group metabolism
  3. Dehydrogenation and redox reactions
  4. Phosphorylation reactions
  5. Methyl transfer reactions

7. Which of the following vitamins is the precursor of CoA?

  1. Riboflavin
  2. Pantothenate
  3. Thiamine
  4. Cobalamin
  5. Pyridoxamine

8. A 14-year-old Caucasian girl has been dieting to maximize her performance on the mile run with her track team. Although her lower weight initially improves her performance, she begins to fade in the last quartermile despite the exhortations of her trainer. She reports increasing muscle cramps and fatigue and undergoes stress testing that shows a progressive inefficiency of oxygen to energy conversion accompanied by increased blood lactate Her sports medicine subspecialist attributes this to deficient fat stores and suggests a particular supplement. Which of the following would be most likely to benefit this patient?

  1. Glycine and tyrosine
  2. Thymidine
  3. Pantothenic acid
  4. Uridine
  5. Folate

9. Chronic alcoholics are at risk to develop lactic acidosis and neurologic symptoms, one example of which is the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (MIM*277730). This complex of symptoms includes nerve problems such as nystagmus (oscillating eyes), ophthalmoplegia (deviated or weak eye), peripheral numbness/tingling, and cerebral problems such as confusion, delirium, coma, and memory loss in Explanation of why certain alcoholics get Wernicke-Korsakoff encephalopathy was suggested when altered transketolase (an important enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway) was found in these individuals. Which of the following is most likely to be important in the development of lactic acidosis and/or Wernicke-Korsakoff susceptibility in  alcoholics?

  1. Thiamine pyrophosphate
  2. Lipoamide
  3. ATP
  4. NADH
  5. FADH

10. Which of the following cofactors must be utilized during the conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA?

  1. Thiamine pyrophosphate
  2. Acyl carrier protein (ACP)
  3. NAD1
  4. Biotin
  5. FAD

11. One of many roles for vitamins is their use as a reactive agent at the active sites of enzymes. Since these are catalytic reactions, the vitamin is not consumed in the reaction and is required in small Knowledge of this common mechanism should discourage use of megavitamin supplements that are promoted as cures for autism, cancer, and colds, but an unfortunate 30% of the American public admit to taking such supplements. Which of the following enzymes uses a vitamin-derived cofactor that is reoxidized by but different from NAD+?

  1. Lactate dehydrogenase
  2. Glutamate dehydrogenase
  3. Pyruvate dehydrogenase
  4. Malate dehydrogenase
  5. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

12. Which of the following foods should be emphasized for individuals with peripheral neuritis, insomnia, mouth and skin irritation, and diarrhea?

  1. Human and cow (not goat) milk, uncooked fruits, and vegetables
  2. Milk, eggs, meats, and fruits
  3. Vegetables, cereals, and fruits
  4. Liver, poultry, and eggs
  5. Egg yolks, fish oils, and leafy vegetables

13. Which of the following statements best describes vitamin A?

  1. Vitamin A promotes maintenance of epithelial tissue.
  2. Vitamin A is necessary for hearing but not for vision.
  3. Vitamin A is synthesized in skin.
  4. All vitamin A derivatives are safe to use during pregnancy.
  5. Vitamin A is a form of calciferol.

14. Which of the following conditions most rapidly produces a functional deficiency of vitamin K?

  1. Coumadin therapy to prevent thrombosis in patients prone to clot  formation
  2. Broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy
  3. Lack of red meat in the diet
  4. Lack of citrus fruits in the diet
  5. Premature birth

15. A homeless 22-year-old Caucasian male is brought into the emergency room with psychotic imagery and alcohol on his breath. Which of the following compounds is most important to administer?

  1. Glucose
  2. Niacin
  3. Nicotinic acid
  4. Thiamine
  5. Riboflavin

16. Which of the following vitamins becomes a major electron acceptor, aiding in the oxidation of numerous substrates?

  1. Vitamin B6
  2. Niacin
  3. Riboflavin
  4. Thiamine
  5. Vitamin B1

17. Pantothenic acid is important for which of the following steps or pathways?

  1. Pyruvate carboxylase
  2. Fatty acid synthesis
  3. Pyruvate carboxykinase
  4. Gluconeogenesis
  5. Glycolysis

18. Which of the following enzymes requires a vitamin that is rarely deficient except in those eating fad diets with excess raw egg white?

  1. Pyruvate carboxylase
  2. Pyruvate dehydrogenase
  3. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase
  4. Glucokinase
  5. Fructokinase

19. Neural tube defects such as anencephaly and spina bifida have higher frequencies in certain populations like those of Celtic origin and in certain regions such as South This suggestion of environmental cause produced research showing that deficiency of which of the following vitamins is associated with the occurrence of neural tube defects (anencephaly and spina bifida)?

  1. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
  2. Thiamine (vitamin B1)
  3. Riboflavin (vitamin B2)
  4. Niacin (vitamin B3)
  5. Folic acid

20. After a meal and clearance of carbohydrates/chylomicrons from the bloodstream, blood glucose is initially maintained by liver glycogenolysis, then sustained by fat mobilization from adipose tissue. Children with glycogen storage disorders have immediate problems with glucose maintenance, while those with fatty acid oxidation disorders have later problems after glycogen is Which of the following mechanisms best explains the coordinate stimulation of glycogenolysis and lipolysis?

  1. Cortisol, a glucocorticoid, alters transcription in liver and adipocytes.
  2. Cortisol, a glucocorticoid, binds to liver and adipose plasma membrane receptors to increase cAMP.
  3. Epinephrine diffuses into the cytosol of liver and adipose cells, activating phosphorylase kinase and triglyceride lipase by allosteric mechanisms.
  4. Adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) is the second messenger in adipocytes, but not in the liver.
  5. Epinephrine acts through the second messenger cAMP and protein kinases to stimulate glycogen phosphorylase and triglyceride lipase activities.

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