[Immunology] The Serological Response to Parasitic and Fungal Infections Quizzes (19 tests)

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[Immunology] The Serological Response to Parasitic and Fungal Infections Quizzes (19 tests)
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Select the one best response to each question!

Compared to a host’s response to the mumps virus, overcoming a parasitic infection is more difficult for the host because of which of the following characteristics of parasites?

 

1. Compared to a host’s response to the mumps virus, overcoming a parasitic infection is more difficult for the host because of which of the following characteristics of parasites?
a. Large size
b. Complex antigenic structures
c. Elaborate life cycle
d. All of the above
2. Most of the pathology associated with parasitic infections results from which of the following?
a. Symbiotic relationships with the host
b. Elaborate parasitic life cycles
c. Immune response to the offending organism
d. Innate defense mechanisms of the host
3. Parasites are able to evade host defenses by which of the following means?
a. Acquisition of host antigens
b. Changing surface antigens
c. Sequestering themselves within host cells
d. All of the above
4. The chronic nature of parasitic infections is due to the host’s
a. inability to eliminate the infective agent.
b. type I hypersensitivity response to the infection.
c. ability to form a granuloma around the parasite.
d. tendency to form circulating immune complexes.
5. Clinical information provided by studying the immune response to parasitic diseases
a. aids in correctly diagnosing the disease.
b. predicts the prognosis of the disease.
c. determines the possibility of reinfection by the parasite.
d. All of the above
6. The presence of both IgM and IgG antibody in toxoplasmosis infections suggests that the infection
a. occurred more than 2 years ago.
b. occurred less than 18 months ago.
c. is chronic.
d. has resolved itself
7. IgE is an important component of the immune response to infections caused by
a. Toxoplasma gondii.
b. Giardia lamblia.
c. Cryptosporidium parvum.
d. Schistosoma mansoni.
8. Which of the following are factors that have enabled saprophytic fungi to cause infections in humans?
a. Their ability to survive the body’s cellular defenses
b. Their traumatic introduction into body tissues
c. Use of antibiotics and immunosuppressive agents
d. All of the above
9. In congenital toxoplasmosis, the newborn has elevated levels of what class of immunoglobulin?
a. IgA
b. IgG
c. IgM
d. IgE
10. When a mycosis is suspected, patient information must be acquired for all of the following except
a. symptoms and physical examination.
b. occupation, residence, and travel.
c. medical treatment and medications.
d. an exercise program.
11. The most significant defense against fungal infections is
a. cellular immunity.
b. humoral immunity.
c. phagocytosis.
d. complement activation.
12. Serodiagnosis is most important in making a rapid and presumptive diagnosis of fungal infections when
a. the patient is under 12 or over 50 years of age.
b. the patient has an undiagnosed acute or chronic respiratory infection.
c. cultures of specimens are positive.
d. histological tissue slide preparations are positive.
13. Because the stage of the mycosis is often not known, what is the best way to proceed when initiating serodiagnosis?
a. Use a skin test in an endemic area, because a positive skin test is diagnostic.
b. Use a combination of serological tests.
c. Serial testing is excessive; a single test is always diagnostic.
d. Use a single, specific antibody test.
14. After infection has been established, serodiagnostic tests are most likely to be positive in which of the following cases?
a. The patient has developed a state of anergy.
b. The patient is immunocompromised.
c. The patient is immunocompetent.
d. The tests were taken before antibodies had time to develop.
15. Which best describes nonspecific cross-reactions that occur in fungal serological tests?
a. Occur as a result of crude unpurified antigens
b. Occur with only one genus of fungi
c. Do not interfere with fungal identification
d. Tend to remain at high titer as a mycosis develops
16. Two serological tests currently used for the diagnosis of aspergillosis and candidiasis are
a. complement fixation (CF) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA).
b. immunodiffusion (ID) and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE).
c. counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) and complement fixation (CF).
d. enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and immunodiffusion (ID).
17. A 27-year-old man from Ohio, diagnosed with AIDS, developed chest pains and after a short period of time also developed severe headaches with dizziness. His hobby was raising messenger pigeons. His physician ordered a sputum culture and spinal tap, and both were positive for a yeastlike fungus. These findings are most consistent with infection by
a. Candida albicans.
b. Coccidioides immitis.
c. Cryptococcus neoformans.
d. Histoplasma capsulatum.
18. Which of the following serological tests detects the polysaccharide capsule antigen in serum and CSF of patients with suspected infection with Cryptococcus neoformans?
a. Complement fixation (CF)
b. Hypersensitivity skin test
c. Latex agglutination (LA)
d. Hemagglutination test
19. What is the most widely used quantitative serological test for identification of antibodies in infection with Coccidioides immitis?
a. Complement fixation (CF)
b. Latex agglutination (LA)
c. Exoantigen test
d. Fluorescent antibody test

 

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