Persons with spondylolysis have a defect in which of the following structures?
Persons with spondylolysis have a defect in the vertebral arch. When this is bilateral, it results in the L5 vertebra being divided into two pieces. If the parts separate, the abnormality is spondylolisthesis, which is anterior displacement of the body of the L5 vertebra on the sacrum
Which of the following muscles surrounds the crura in the root of the penis?
The ischiocavernous muscles surround the crura in the root of the penis. Each muscle arises from the internal surface of the ischial tuberosity and ischial ramus and passes anteriorly on the crus of the penis, where it is inserted into the sides and ventral surface of the crus and the perineal membrane. The ischiocavernous muscles force blood from the cavernous spaces in the crura into the distal parts of the corpora cavernosa, thus increasing the turgidity of the penis
Each of the following statements relating to the labia minora is correct EXCEPT
The labia minora are folds of fat-free, hairless skin. They are enclosed in the pudendal cleft within the labia majora, immediately surrounding the vestibule of the vagina. They have a core of spongy connective tissue containing erectile tissue and many small blood vessels
All of the following statements concerning the pectinate line are correct EXCEPT
The pectinate line indicates the junction of the superior part of the anal canal and the inferior part. The anal canal superior to the pectinate line differs from the part inferior to the pectinate line in its arterial supply, innervation, and venous and lymphatic drainage. The superior rectal artery supplies the superior part of the anal canal and the inferior rectal arteries supply the inferior part. Superior to the pectinate line, the internal rectal venous plexus drains chiefly into the superior rectal vein—a tributary of the inferior mesenteric vein and the portal system. Inferior to the pectinate line the internal rectal plexus drains into the inferior rectal veins—tributaries to the caval venous system. Superior to the pectinate line, the lymphatics drain into the internal iliac lymph nodes into the common iliac and lumbar nodes. Inferior to the pectinate line, the lymphatics drain into the superficial inguinal lymph nodes. Superior to the pectinate line, the innervation is visceral; inferior to the pectinate line, the innervation is somatic
Parasympathetic stimulation in the female produces which of the following?
Parasympathetic stimulation in the female produces an increase in vaginal secretions, erection of the clitoris, and engorgement of erectile tissue in the bulbs of the vestibule
The deep arteries of the penis are located in which of the following areas?
The arterial supply of the penis is mainly from the branches of the internal pudendal arteries. The deep arteries of the penis are the main vessels supplying the cavernous spaces in the erectile tissue of the corpora cavernosa and are therefore involved in the erection of the penis. The deep arteries pierce the crura and run within the corpora cavernosa
The clitoris is derived from which of the following structures?
In females, the genital tubercle elongates only slightly and forms the clitoris
Which of the following structures extends into the labia majora?
Descent of the gonads is considerably less in the female than in the male, and the ovaries finally settle just below the rim of the true pelvis. The cranial genital ligament forms the suspensory ligament of the ovary, whereas the caudal genital ligament forms the ligament of the ovary proper and the round ligament of the uterus. The latter extends into the labia majora
Which of the following structures give rise to the labia minora?
The urethral folds do not fuse, as in the male, but develop into the labia minora
The vaginal fornices are derived from which of the following structures?
The winglike expansions of the vagina around the end of the uterus, the vaginal fornices, are of paramesonephric origin
The navicular fossa is located in which of the following structures?
The lumen of the spongy urethra is approximately 5 mm in diameter and expanded in the bulb of the penis to form the intrabulbar fossa and in the glans penis to form the fossa navicularis
The anal columns contain which of the following structures?
The superior half of the anal canal contains mucous membrane that is characterized by a series of longitudinal ridges called anal columns. These columns contain the terminal branches of the superior rectal artery and vein
The scrotum arises from which of the following structures?
The genital swellings, known in the male as the scrotal swellings, arise in the inguinal region. With further development, they move caudally, and each swelling then makes up half of the scrotum
Rapid elongation of the genital tubercle in the male gives rise to which of the following structures?
The rapid elongation of the genital tubercle in the male gives rise to the phallus
The paramesonephric ducts in the male degenerate except for which of the following structures?
Except for the most cranial portion, the appendix epididymis, the mesonephric ducts persist and form the main genital ducts. Immediately below the entrance of the efferent ductules, the mesonephric ducts elongate and become highly convoluted, forming the ductus epididymis. From the tail of the epididymis to the outbudding of the seminal vesicle, the mesonephric ducts obtain a thick muscular coat and form the ductus deferens. The region of the ducts beyond the seminal vesicles is the ejaculatory duct. Except for a small portion at their cranial ends, the appendix testis, the paramesonephric ducts in the male degenerate
The space between the labia minora, the vestibule, contains all of the following structures EXCEPT
The vestibule is the space between the labia minora containing the openings of the urethra, vagina, and ducts of the greater and lesser vestibular glands. The greater vestibular glands are round or oval and are partly overlapped posteriorly by bulbs of the vestibule and, like the bulbs, are partially surrounded by the bulbospongiosus muscles
Which of the following nerves do NOT innervate the scrotum?
The anterior aspect of the scrotum is supplied by anterior scrotal nerves derived from the ilioinguinal nerve and by the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve. The posterior aspect of the scrotum is supplied by posterior scrotal nerves, branches of the superficial perineal nerves, and the perineal branch of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve
The only parts remaining from the mesonephric system in the female include which of the following structures?
The only parts remaining from the mesonephric system are the epoöphoron, paro- öphoron, and Gartner’s cys
The pudendal nerve innervates which of the following structures?
The pudendal nerve supplies most of the innervation to the perineum. Toward the distal end of the pudendal canal, the pudendal nerve splits, giving rise to the perineal nerves and continuing as the dorsal nerve of the penis or clitoris
Which of the following terms correctly applies to the pelvis of the normal female?
Android and anthropoid pelves are common in males. The platypelloid pelvis is uncommon in both males and females. The gynecoid pelvis is the normal female type of pelvis
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