What type of injury or condition might cause a lesion to the olfactory tract?
Fracture of the cribriform plate might cause a lesion to the olfactory tract, resulting in anosmia or CSF rhinorrhea
A lesion of the hypoglossal nerve would result in which of the following?
A lesion to the hypoglossal nerve (due to a neck laceration or basal skull fracture) would result in the protruded tongue deviating toward the affected side in addition to altered articulation
Which of the following passes through the gap between the superior constrictor and the skull?
The ascending palatine artery, levator veli palatini, and pharyngotympanic tube pass through the gap between the superior constrictor and the skull
A lesion to the zygomatic branch of CN VII would cause which of the following?
A lesion of the zygomatic branch of CN VII would cause paralysis of the orbicularis oculi and therefore a drooping of the lower eyelid. Subsequently, tears would fail to spread over the cornea, resulting in a corneal scar and therefore impaired vision
The eye is turned down and out. What type and site of lesion do you expect?
Pressure from the uncus, a fracture in the cavernous sinus, or aneurysms could damage CN III, resulting in a dilated pupil, ptosis, the eye being turned down and out, and a loss of pupillary reflex on the side of the lesion
Which of the following has an insertion on the pharyngeal tubercle of the occipital bone?
The superior constrictor inserts on the median raphe of the pharynx and the pharyngeal tubercle on the basilar part of the occipital bone
Ptosis results from a lesion of which nerve?
Ptosis (drooping upper eyelid) is caused by a lesion to the oculomotor nerve, which innervates the levator palpebrae superioris
The stylopharyngeus is associated with which branchial arch?
The third arch is associated with the glossopharyngeal nerve, stylopharyngeus, and the greater horn and lower portion of the body of the hyoid bone
An epidural hematoma consists of blood from which vessel?
An epidural hematoma consists of blood from the middle meningeal artery
Which of the following prominences is NOT correctly paired with the structures formed from it?
The lower lip is formed from the mandibular prominence
Which of the following is NOT present at birth?
The mastoid processes are absent at birth. Therefore, the facial nerves are close to the surface when they emerge from the stylomastoid foramina and may be injured during delivery
Which of the following passes through the gap inferior to the inferior constrictor?
The inferior laryngeal artery and recurrent laryngeal nerve pass through the gap inferior to the inferior constrictor
. Sagging of the soft palate, deviation of the uvula to the normal side, and hoarseness might be caused by a lesion to which nerve?
Sagging of the soft palate, deviation of the uvula to the normal side, and hoarseness might be caused by a lesion to the vagus nerve at the brainstem or in the neck
Which of the following passes through the gap between the middle and inferior constrictors?
The superior laryngeal artery and vein and the internal laryngeal nerve pass through the gap between the middle and inferior constrictors
The inferior alveolar nerve is best blocked at which location for dental work?
The site of anesthetic injection to block the inferior alveolar nerve is the mandibular foramen
Which nerve might be damaged by a fracture involving the cavernous sinus?
A fracture involving the cavernous sinus might damage the oculomotor nerve or the abducens nerve
The arytenoid and cricoid cartilages and laryngeal connective tissue are formed by what?
The arytenoid and cricoid cartilages and laryngeal connective tissue are formed by lateral plate mesoderm
A superficial neck laceration might result in which abnormal finding?
A neck laceration might damage the spinal root of the accessory nerve, resulting in paralysis of the SCM and superior fibers of the trapezius and drooping of the shoulder
Which of the following is NOT innervated by the cranial root of the accessory nerve?
The salpingopharyngeus is innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve. The three constrictors, palatopharyngeus, and salpingopharyngeus are innervated by the cranial root of the accessory nerve
Which of the following is correct?
A Le Fort I fracture is a horizontal fracture of the maxillae
Which of the following passes through the gap between the superior and middle constrictors?
The glossopharyngeal nerve, stylopharyngeus, and stylohyoid ligament pass through the gap between the superior and middle constrictors
Horner syndrome is caused by a lesion of which of the following?
Interruption of the cervical sympathetic trunk results in Horner syndrome
Cerebral compression is NOT attributed to which of the following?
Cerebral compression is typically attributed to intracranial collections of blood, obstruction of CSF flow, intracranial tumors or abscesses, and edema of the brain
Which of the following is NOT a symptom of Horner syndrome?
Symptoms of Horner syndrome include pupillary constriction, ptosis, sinking in of one eye, and absence of sweating on the face and neck
A laceration or contusion in the parotid region or a fracture of the temporal bone might damage which nerve?
A laceration or contusion in the parotid region, a fracture of the temporal bone, or a stroke might damage the facial nerve, resulting in paralysis of facial muscles, an eye that remains open, a drooping mouth, a smooth-appearing forehead (no wrinkles), dry cornea, and loss of taste in the anterior two-thirds of the tongue
The facial veins make clinically important connections with the cavernous sinus through which veins?
The facial veins make clinically important connections with the cavernous sinus through the superior ophthalmic veins. Infections in the orbit, nasal sinuses, and superior part of the face may lead to cavernous sinus thrombosis
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