The lacunar ligament is a reflection or extension from the deep aspect of which of the following structures?
The inguinal ligament is reinforced in its most medial part by the lacunar ligament, a reflected part or extension from the deep aspect of the inguinal ligament to the pectineal line of the pecten pubis
The midclavicular planes pass through the midpoint of the clavicles to the midpoint of which of the following structures?
The midclavicular planes pass through the midpoint of the clavicles to the midinguinal points
The anterolateral abdominal wall is bounded by all of the following structures EXCEPT
The anterolateral abdominal wall includes the cartilages of the 7th–10th ribs and xiphoid process superiorly. Inferiorly it is bounded by the inguinal ligament and the pelvic bone
The testes develop in which of the following areas?
The testes develop in the extraperitoneal connective tissue in the superior lumbar region of the posterior abdominal wall
Which of the following structures give rise to the deep inguinal ring?
The deep inguinal ring (entrance to the inguinal canal) is the site of an outpouching of the transversalis fascia approximately 1.2 cm superior to the middle of the inguinal ligament
Inferiorly, the inferior margin of the external oblique aponeurosis thickens and folds back on itself to form which of the following structures?
Inferiorly, the inferior margin of the external oblique aponeurosis thickens and folds back on itself to form the inguinal ligament, a fibrous band extending between the anterior superior iliac spine and the pubic tubercle
For general clinical descriptions, which of the following planes is used as one of the planes to define four quadrants of the abdominal cavity?
The transumbilical and median planes divide the abdomen into four quadrants
Where is extraperitoneal fat located?
The parietal peritoneum is internal to the transversalis fascia and is separated from it by a variable amount of endoabdominal (extraperitoneal) fat. Camper’s fascia and the deep fasciae are all superficial to the extraperitoneal fat
The reflected inguinal ligament receives fibers from the contralateral aponeurosis of which of the following structures?
Some fibers of the inguinal ligament pass upward to cross the linea alba and blend with the lower fibers of the contralateral aponeurosis. These fibers form the reflected inguinal ligament
The inguinal canal contains which of the following nerves?
The inguinal canal contains the spermatic cord in the male and the round ligament in the female. The inguinal canal also contains blood and lymphatic vessels and the ilioinguinal nerve in both sexes
Between the internal oblique and transverse abdominal muscles is a neurovascular plane that contains all of the following EXCEPT
The neurovascular plane of the anterolateral abdominal wall contains the thoracoabdominal nerves, cutaneous branches T7–T11, ventral ramus of T12, iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves, lumbar arteries, and the deep circumflex iliac artery
The aponeuroses of all three flat muscles of the anterolateral abdominal wall interlace in which of the following structures?
The aponeuroses of these muscles interlace at the linea alba with their fellows of the opposite side to form the tough, aponeurotic tendinous sheath of the rectus muscle, and the rectus sheath
The iliopubic tract is the thickened inferior margin of which of the following structures?
The iliopubic tract is the thickened inferior margin of the transversalis fascia that appears as a fibrous band running parallel and deep to the inguinal ligament. The iliopubic tract demarcates the inferior edge of the deep inguinal ring
The superficial muscle fibers of the external abdominal oblique arising from the middle to lower ribs interdigitate with which of the following muscles?
The superficial fibers of the external abdominal oblique arising from the middle and lower ribs interdigitate with only those of the serratus anterior
All of the following structures are located within the rectus sheath EXCEPT
The two medial umbilical folds represent remnants of which of the following structures?
The median umbilical fold represents the remnant of the urachus; the medial umbilical folds are remnants of the occluded fetal umbilical arteries; and the lateral umbilical folds cover the inferior epigastric vessels
The rectus abdominis muscle is anchored transversely by attachment to the anterior layer of the rectus sheath by which of the following structures?
The rectus muscle is anchored transversely by attachments to the anterior layer of the rectus sheath and three or more tendinous intersections
Which of the following fossae are potential sites for direct inguinal hernias?
The medial inguinal fossae between the medial and lateral umbilical folds, the inguinal triangles, are potential sites for the less common direct inguinal hernias. The lateral inguinal fossae, lateral to the lateral umbilical folds, are potential sites for the most common type of hernia in the lower abdominal wall—indirect inguinal hernia
Which of the following structures defines the point at which the posterior lamina of the internal oblique and the aponeurosis of the transverse abdominal become part of the anterior rectus sheath?
The inferior limit of the posterior lamina of the rectus sheath is marked by the arcuate line, which defines the point at which the posterior lamina of the internal oblique and the aponeurosis of the transverse abdominal become part of the anterior rectus sheath
The fascial layer that covers the deep surface of the transverse abdominal muscle is known as which of the following?
Transversalis fascia lines most of the abdominal wall and covers the deep surface of the transverse abdominal muscle. The deep fascia invests the external abdominal oblique muscle. Both Camper’s and Scarpa’s fascia are located in the inferior part of the abdominal subcutaneous tissue
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