The high death rate associated with breast cancer is related to which of the following?
Because the axillary lymph nodes are the most common site of metastases from a breast cancer, enlargement of the palpable nodes in a woman suggests the possibility of breast cancer and may be key to early detection. However, the absence of enlarged axillary nodes is no guarantee that metastasis from a breast cancer has not occurred, because the malignant cells may have passed to other nodes, such as the infraclavicular and supraclavicular lymph nodes
Which of the following statements correctly apply to the internal thoracic artery?
After descending past the 2nd costal cartilage, the internal thoracic artery runs anterior to the transversus thoracis muscle. It ends in the 6th intercostal space, where it divides into the superior epigastric and musculophrenic arteries
The retromammary space is located between which of the following structures?
Between the breast and deep pectoral fascia is a loose connective tissue plane or potential space known as the retromammary space
Which of the following structures carry highly oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart?
The pulmonary veins, two on each side, carry well-oxygenated (“arterial”) blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
All of the following statements correctly apply to the right lung EXCEPT
The right lung has three lobes, the left two. The right lung is larger and heavier than the left, but it is shorter and wider, because the right dome of the diaphragm is higher and the heart and pericardium bulge more to the left. The anterior margin of the right lung is relatively straight, whereas the margin of the left lung has a deep cardiac notch. The cardiac notch primarily indents the anteroinferior aspect of the superior lobe of the left lung. This often creates a thin, tongue-like process of the superior lobe, called the lingula
Which of the following is the basic structural unit for gas exchange in the lung?
The alveolus is the basic unit of gas exchange in the lung
All of the following statements correctly apply to the right coronary artery EXCEPT
Typically, the right coronary artery supplies the right atrium, most of the right ventricle, part of the left ventricle, part of the AV septum, and the SA node in approximately 60% of people and the AV node in approximately 80% of people
Which of the following statements concerning the sternal angle is correct?
The sternal angle is located opposite the 2nd pair of costal cartilages at the level of the 4thintervertebral disc between T4 and T5 vertebrae
The pleural cavity contains which of the following?
The pleural cavity, the potential space between the layers of pleura, contains a capillary layer of serous pleural fluid. It provides the lubrication and cohesion that keep the lung surface in contact with the thoracic wall
Which of the following structures is located in the posterior mediastinum?
The posterior mediastinum contains the thoracic aorta, thoracic duct, azygos and hemiazygos veins, esophagus, and thoracic sympathetic trunks
The interventricular septum contains which of the following structures?
The interventricular septum is composed of membranous and muscular parts. The conus arteriosus leads into the pulmonary trunk. A thick muscular ridge, the supraventricular crest, separates the ridged muscular wall of the inflow part of the right ventricle from the smooth wall of the conus arteriosus or outflow part
All of the following statements correctly apply to the right atrium EXCEPT
The right border of the heart is formed by the right atrium; it receives venous blood from the SVC, IVC, and coronary sinus. It contains both the crista terminalis and the limbus fossae ovalis. The interior of the ventricles contains irregular muscular elevations called trabeculae carneae
All of the following statements correctly apply to the left main bronchus EXCEPT
The right main bronchus is wider and shorter, running more vertically than the left main bronchus as it passes directly to the hilum of the lung. The left main bronchus passes inferolaterally, inferior to the arch of the aorta and anterior to the esophThe right main bronchus is wider and shorter, running more vertically than the left main bronchus as it passes directly to the hilum of the lung. The left main bronchus passes inferolaterally, inferior to the arch of the aorta and anterior to the esophagus and thoracic aorta, to reach the hilum of the lung agus and thoracic aorta, to reach the hilum of the lung
The parietal pleura consists of all of the following parts EXCEPT
The parietal pleura includes costal, mediastinal, diaphragmatic, and cervical parts
Which of the following statements correctly applies to the tricuspid valve?
The tricuspid valve guards the right AV orifice. The bases of the valve cusps are attached to the fibrous ring around the orifice. Chordae tendineae attach to the free edges and ventricular surfaces of the anterior, posterior, and septal cusps
All of the following statements concerning spinal nerves are correct EXCEPT
The dorsal and ventral rami are both motor and sensory. The cutaneous branches include anterior, lateral, and posterior branches. The dorsal root is sensory and the ventral root is motor. The spinal nerves supply a band-like skin area known as a dermatome
Where is the groove for the subclavian artery located?
The surface of the 1st rib has two transversely directed shallow grooves, anterior and posterior to the scalene tubercle, for the subclavian vein and the subclavian artery respectively
Which of the following structures is located in the middle mediastinum?
The middle mediastinum contains the heart
All of the following statements correctly apply to a bronchopulmonary segment EXCEPT
A bronchopulmonary segment is a pyramidshaped segment of the lung with its apex facing the lung root and its base at the pleural surface. It is the largest subdivision of a lobe and is sepa- rated from adjacent segments by connective tissue. It is surgically resectable
The articular part of a rib tubercle articulates with which of the following structures?
The tubercle has a smooth articular part for articulating with the corresponding transverse process of the vertebra and a rough nonarticular part for attachment of the costotransverse ligament
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