Which of the following are derivatives of the epimere?
Myoblasts of the epimeres form the extensor muscles of the vertebral column
Shortly after week four of development, dorsal primary rami begin to innervate which of the following?
Dorsal primary rami innervate dorsal axial musculature, vertebral joints, and the skin of the back
Which of the following statements is true?
Paralysis of the limbs and problems with bladder/bowel control may be present in severe cases of meningomyelocele, which is associated with spina bifida cystica, a condition in which one or more vertebral arches do not develop. In spina bifida occulta, the laminae of L5 and possibly S1 do not fuse properly. Some cases of spina bifida result from an improper closure of the neural tube during the 4th week of embryonic development
Which of the following is NOT true in respect to caudal epidural anesthesia?
The height to which the anesthetic travels is primarily limited by the amount injected and by the position of the patient
Which of the following is NOT a vertebral problem?
Part or all of L5 may fuse with the sacrum (hemisacralization or sacralization). In addition, S1 may separate from the sacrum and fuse with L5. Lumbar stenosis occurs when an intervertebral disc bulges and narrows the vertebral canal in the lumbar region, compressing the spinal nerve roots. T12 is not known to fuse with L1
Which of the following is NOT true?
The number of cervical vertebrae is constant at seven
Lordosis is characterized by which of the following?
Lordosis is characterized by an abnormal rotation of the pelvis
Which of the following statements about kyphosis is true?
Kyphosis (humpback or hunchback) may result from developmental anomalies as well as from osteoporosis. It is characterized by an abnormal increase in the thoracic curvature with the vertebrae curving posteriorly, resulting in an increase in the anteroposterior diameter of the thorax. Women may develop a temporary lordosis—not kyphosis—during pregnancy
Postsynaptic sympathetic fibers do ALL of the following EXCEPT
Postsynaptic sympathetic fibers dilate but do not constrict the pupil of the eye
Scoliosis may be caused by which of the following?
Scoliosis may be caused by asymmetrical weakness of intrinsic back muscles (myopathic scoliosis), difference in length of the lower limbs, failure of one half of a vertebra to develop, or occasionally habitual standing or sitting in an improper position (habit scoliosis)
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