Which of the following is not a member of the minor deep layer of the back?
The spinalis is a member of the erector spinae muscles, which comprise the intermediate muscle layer of the back
Which of the following is NOT a deep (or intrinsic) muscle of the back?
The serratus posterior inferior is an intermediate extrinsic back muscle
Which of the following is true regarding the intervertebral disc between the C1 and C2 vertebrae?
There is no intervertebral disc between the C1 and C2 vertebrae
Which of the following is NOT a distinctive characteristic of a typical thoracic vertebra?
The vertebral foramen is circular and smaller than the foramina of cervical and lumbar vertebrae
The erector spinae muscles
The erector spinae muscles extend the vertebral column and head when acting bilaterally, control flexion of the back by gradually lengthening their fibers, and bend the vertebral column laterally when acting unilaterally
Which of the following back muscles is innervated by dorsal rami?
The longissimus, a deep or intrinsic back muscle, is innervated by dorsal rami. All superficial or extrinsic back muscles except the trapezius, which is innervated by the accessory nerve, are innervated by ventral rami
The vertebral column does all of the following EXCEPT?
The vertebral column forms the main part of the axial skeleton
Which of the following is a distinctive characteristic of a typical lumbar vertebra?
The body is massive and kidney-shaped when viewed superiorly. The vertebral foramen is triangular and larger than the foramina in thoracic vertebrae and smaller than those in cervical vertebrae. The transverse processes are long and slender and contain accessory processes. The articular processes contain mammillary processes. The spinous processes are short, thick, and broad
Spinal arteries supplying the vertebrae are branches of the
Spinal arteries supplying the vertebrae are branches of the vertebral and ascending cervical arteries in the neck, posterior intercostal arteries in the thorax, subcostal and lumbar arteries in the lumbar region, and iliolumbar and lateral and medial sacral arteries in the pelvis
All of the following are true regarding the posterior longitudinal ligament EXCEPT?
The posterior longitudinal ligament helps prevent hyperflexion of the vertebral column
Which of the following is NOT a distinctive characteristic of a typical cervical vertebra?
The articular processes contain superior facets directed superoposteriorly
The transversospinalis muscles do all of the following EXCEPT
The transversospinalis muscles do not elevate the ribs to assist inspiration
Which of the following muscles does NOT attach to transverse processes of vertebrae?
The spinalis inserts on spinous processes—not transverse processes. The semispinalis, multifidus, rotatores, and intertransversarii all attach to transverse processes of vertebrae
Which of the following muscles does NOT laterally bend the cervical intervertebral joints?
The longus colli flexes the cervical intervertebral joints but does not bend them laterally
The splenius capitis and cervicis
The splenius capitis and cervicis, when acting together, extend the head and neck
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